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Staking in Ethereum 2.0: when will it appear and how much can you earn on it?

Staking in Ethereum 2.0: when will it appear and how much can you earn on it?

Staking in Ethereum 2.0: when will it appear and how much can you earn on it?

Why coin staking will be added in Ethereum 2.0

A brief educational program for those who do not follow the update of the project of Vitalik Buterin. Ethereum has long been in need of updating, and the main problem of the network is scalability: the blockchain is overloaded, transactions are slowing down, and the cost of “gas” (transaction fees) is growing. If you do not update the consensus algorithm, then the network will someday cease to be operational. To avoid this, developers have been working for several years on moving the network from the PoW algorithm to state 2.0, running on PoS. This should make the network more scalable, faster and cheaper. In December last year, the first upgrade phase, Istanbul, was implemented in the network, and in April of this year, the Topaz test network with the possibility of staking was launched - the first users already earned 1%. In the PoS algorithm that Ethereum switches to, there is no mining, and validation occurs due to the delegation of user network coins to the masternodes. For the duration of the delegation, these coins are frozen, and for providing their funds for block validation, users receive a portion of the reward. This is staking - such a crypto-analogue of a bank deposit. There are several types of staking: with income from dividends or masternodes, but not the device’s power, as in PoW algorithms, but the number of miner coins is important in all of them. The more coins, the higher the income. For crypto investors, staking is an opportunity to receive passive income from blocked coins. It is assumed that the launch of staking:
  • Will make ETH mining more affordable, but less resource intensive;
  • Will make the network more secure and secure - attacks will become too expensive;
  • Will create an entirely new sector of steak infrastructure around the platform;
  • Provides increased scalability, which will create the opportunity for wider implementation of DeFi protocols;
  • And, most importantly, it will show that Ethereum is a developing project.

The first payments to stakeholders will be one to two years after the launch of the update

The minimum validator steak will be 32 ETN (≈$6092 for today). This is the minimum number of coins that an ETH holder must freeze in order to qualify for payments. Another prerequisite is not to disconnect your wallet from the network. If the user disconnects and goes into automatic mode, he loses his daily income. If at some point the steak drops below 16 ETH, the user will be deprived of the right to be a validator. The Ethereum network has to go through many more important stages before coin holders can make money on its storage. Collin Myers, the leader of the product strategy at the startup of the Ethereum developer ConsenSys, said that the genesis block of the new network will not be mined until the total amount of frozen funds reaches 524,000 ETN ($99.76 million at the time of publication). So many coins should be kept by 16,375 validators with a minimum deposit of 32 ETN. Until this moment, none of them will receive a percentage profit. Myers noted that this event is not tied to a clear time and depends on the activity of the community. All validators will have to freeze a rather significant amount for an indefinite period in the new network without confidence in the growth of the coin rate. It’s hard to say how many people there are. The developers believe that it will take 12−18 or even 24 months. According to the latest ConsenSys Codefi report, more than 65% of the 300 ETH owners surveyed plan to use the staking opportunity. This sample, of course, is not representative, but it can be assumed that most major coin holders will still be willing to take a chance.

How much can you earn on Ethereum staking

Developers have been arguing for a long time about what profitability should be among the validators of the Ethereum 2.0 network. The economic model of the network maintains an inflation rate below 1% and dynamically adjusts the reward scale for validators. The difficulty is not to overpay, but not to pay too little. Profitability will be variable, as it depends on the number and size of steaks, as well as other parameters. The fewer frozen coins and validators, the higher the yield, and vice versa. This is an easy way to motivate users to freeze ETN. According to the October calculations of Collin Myers, after the launch of Ethereum 2.0, validators will be able to receive from 4.6% to 10.3% per annum as a reward for their steak. At the summit, he clarified that the first time after the launch of the Genesis block, it can even reach 20.3%. But as the number of steaks grows, profitability will decline. So, with five million steaks, it drops to about 6.6%. The above numbers are not net returns. They do not include equipment and electricity costs. According to Myers, after the Genesis block, the costs of maintaining the validator node will be about 4.75% of the remuneration. They will continue to increase as the number of blocked coins increases, and with a five millionth steak, they will grow to about 14.7%. Myers emphasized that profitability will be higher for those who will work on their own equipment, rather than relying on cloud services. The latter, according to his calculations, at current prices can bring a loss of up to minus 15% per year. This, he believes, promotes true decentralization. At the end of April, Vitalik Buterin said that validators will be able to earn 5% per annum with a minimum stake of 32 ETH - 1.6 ETH per year, or $ 304 at the time of publication. However, given the cost of freezing funds, the real return will be at 0.8%.

How to calculate profitability from ETN staking

The easiest way to calculate the estimated return for Ethereum staking is to use a special calculator. For example, from the online services EthereumPrice or Stakingrewards. The service takes into account the latest indicators of network profitability, as well as additional characteristics: the time of operation of a node in the network, the price of a coin, the share of blocked ETNs and so on. Depending on these values, the profit of the validator can vary greatly. For example, you block 32 ETNs at today's coin price - $190, 1% of the coins are blocked, and the node works 99% of the time. According to the EthereumPrice calculator, in this case your yield will be 14.25% per annum, or 4.56 ETH.
Validator earnings from the example above for 10 years according to EthereumPrice.
If to change the data, you have the same steak, but the proportion of blocked coins is 10%. Now your annual yield is only 4.51%, or 1.44 ETH.
Validator earnings from the second example over 10 years according to EthereumPrice.
It is important that this is profitability excluding expenses. Real returns will be significantly lower and in the second case may be negative. In addition, you must consider the fluctuation of the course. Even with a yield of 14% per annum in ETN, dollar-denominated returns may be negative in a bear market.

When will the transition to Ethereum 2.0 start

Ben Edgington from Teku, the operator of Ethereum 2.0, at the last summit said that the transition to PoS could be launched in July this year. These deadlines, if there are no new delays, were also mentioned by experts of the BitMEX crypto exchange in their recent report on the transition of the Ethereum ecosystem to stage 2.0. However, on May 12, Vitalik Buterin denied the possibility of launching Ethereum 2.0 in July. The network is not yet ready and is unlikely to be launched before the end of the year. July 30 marks the 5th anniversary of the launch of Ethereum. Unfortunately, it seems that it will not be possible to start the update for the anniversary again. Full deployment of updates will consist of several stages. Phase 0. Beacon chain. The "zero" phase, which can be launched in July this year. In fact, it will only be a network test and PoS testing without economic activity, but it will use new ETN coins and the possibility of staking will appear. The "zero" phase will test the first layer of Ethereum 2.0 architecture - Lighthouse. This is the Ethereum 2.0 client in Rust, developed back in 2018. Phase 1. Sharding - rejection of full nodes in favor of load balancing between all network nodes (shards). This should increase network bandwidth and solve the scalability problem. This is the first full phase of Ethereum 2.0. It will initially be deployed with 64 shards. It is because of sharding that the transition of a network to a new state is so complicated - existing smart contracts cannot be transferred to a new network. Therefore, at first, perhaps several years, both networks will exist simultaneously. Phase 2. State execution. In this phase, various applications will work, and it will be possible to conclude smart contracts. This is a full-fledged working Ethereum 2.0 network. After the second phase, two networks will work in parallel - Ethereum and Ethereum 2.0. Coin holders will be able to transfer ETN from the first to the second without the ability to transfer them back. To stimulate network support, coin emissions in both networks will increase until they merge. Read more about the phases of transition to state 2.0 in the aforementioned BitMEX report.

How the upgrade to Ethereum 2.0 will affect the staking market and coin price

The transition of the second largest coin to PoS will dramatically increase the stake in the market. The deposit in 32 ETH is too large for most users. Therefore, we should expect an increase in offers for staking from the exchanges. So, the launch of such a service in November was announced by the largest Swiss crypto exchange Bitcoin Suisse. She will not have a minimum deposit, and the commission will be 15%. According to October estimates by Binance Research analysts, the transition of Ethereum to stage 2.0 can double the price of a coin and the stake of staking in the market, and it will also make ETH the most popular currency on the PoS algorithm. Adam Cochran, partner at MetaCartel Ventures DAO and developer of DuckDuckGo, argued in his blog that Ethereum's transition to state 2.0 would be the “biggest event” of the cryptocurrency market. He believes that a 3–5% return will attract the capital of large investors, and fear of lost profit (FOMO) among retail investors will push them to actively buy coins. The planned coin burning mechanism for each transaction will reduce the potential oversupply. However, BitMEX experts in the report mentioned above believe that updating the network will not be as important an event as it seems to many, and will not have a significant impact on the coin rate and the staking market. Initially, this will be more likely to test the PoS system, rather than a full-fledged network. There will be no economic activity and smart contracts, and interest for a steak will not be paid immediately. Therefore, most of the economic activity will continue to be concluded in the original Ethereum network, which will work in parallel with the new one. Analysts of the exchange emphasized that due to the addition of staking, the first time (short, in their opinion) a large number of ETNs will be blocked on the network. Most likely, this will limit the supply of coins and lead to higher prices. However, this can also release some of the ETNs blocked in smart contracts, and then the price will not rise. Moreover, the authors of the document are not sure that the demand for coins will be long-term and stable. For this to happen, PoS and sharding must prove that they work stably and provide the benefits for which the update was started. But, if this happens, the network is waiting for a wave of coins from the developers of smart contracts and DeFi protocols. In any case, quick changes should not be expected. A full transition to Ethereum 2.0 will take years and won’t be smooth - network failures are inevitable. We also believe that we should not rely on Ethereum staking as another panacea for all the problems of the coin and the market. Most likely, the transition of the network to PoS will not have a significant impact on the staking market, but may positively affect the price of the coin. However, relying on the ETN rally in anticipation of this is too optimistic.
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If everyone should run full nodes then why POW?

Preamble: I always post my viewpoint on a sub with an opposing standpoint for the sole reason that the best way to learn is from critique and thus my choice of posting here. Please don’t confuse rebuttals with trolling, it's often just often just a misunderstanding on either or both party’s side. Please refrain from pointing out people or altcoins and evaluate premises on their own merits. Also please consider a comment before down voting.
So, as might be deduced I am against the notion that everyone should run a full node and that instead miners can be ‘trusted’ (due to economic incentives) to provide an honest chain on the one with most proof of work and that SPV is good enough for 99% of users. Hopefully the hypothetical scenario following will help to further (or weaken) my case and understanding. Note that this was a shower thought and might be crushed with a single comment (which will be good and what I’m here for).
Introducing Bitcoin with zero greenhouse gas emissions and improved security consensus rules:
Consider these hypothetical changes to Bitcoin’s consensus rules for a hypothetical upgrade to full nodes (note again this is very quick thoughts so over time this could be improved significantly).
So here we have a new and improved Bitcoin that is environmentally friendly and significantly more secure due to the fact that you can compound security by taking a hash that is buried under sChain's POW for as far back as you wish.
Looking forward to those spotting flaws in my preliminary thoughts on this (I am expecting a lot to be honest).
So in the hypothetical scenario that this POW leaching consensus model holds (after this initial suggestion is optimised to as good as it can be) then do we not have to rethink this every node should be validating all transactions idea?
EDIT: After some discussion I want to make some revisions (mainly to remove any POS'ish incentives the initial description might have created)... 1) There will be no rewards whatsoever for creating blocks 2) The block producers are chosen randomly from UTXO set based on sChain's block hashes
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BitOffer Institute: Emergency Step of Cutting Interest Rate Taken by FED, Another bull for Bitcoin?

BitOffer Institute: Emergency Step of Cutting Interest Rate Taken by FED, Another bull for Bitcoin?

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The Federal Reserve on Tuesday took the emergency step of cutting the benchmark U.S. interest rate by half a percentage point, an attempt to limit the economic and financial fallout from the coronavirus. Since the financial crisis in 2008, the reduction of this time was the largest, which was considered as the bailout to the market. Even though, America Stock Market did not buy it. After the news released, the Dow Jones Index dropped by nearly 800 points (3%). In the short term, the decline of the America Stock Market has decreased by more than 10%.
Powell held a news conference following the central bank’s decision to cut overnight interest rates by half a percentage point. He said the Fed “saw a risk to the economy and chose to act.”
“The magnitude and persistence of the overall effect on the U.S. economy remain highly uncertain and the situation remains a fluid one,” he said. “Against this background, the committee judged that the risks to the U.S. outlook have changed materially. In response, we have eased the stance of monetary policy to provide some more support to the economy.”
Under the background of COVID-19, the fear caused the capitals to be called back from the market, which pushed the market to face the shocking situation, especially the stock market of Europe and America. As the stock market has been through the worst month since the last financial crisis, what kind of investments are investors able to follow while the stocks and golds performed unexpectedly?


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Lucian, the Chief Analyst of BitOffer, pointed out “The interest cut this time was the proof of that how serious the problem was. The last emergency interest reduction happened on Oct 8th,2018 because of the economic recession caused by the Collapse of Lehman Brothers. So, it is obvious that FED holds a serious attitude to the current situation they meet.
First, COVID-19 brought new challenges and risks to the global economy and made the financial market turbulent. In addition, it does significant impacts on the global industry chain and the operation of the supply chain, which also does harm to the economy of the United States. However, the interest cut was helpless to the problems of the supply chain.
Besides, the recent US Treasury yields have created the lowest level in the past 100 years. If FED continues cutting the interest, it would drop down the US Treasury yields further. Once it happens, the central banks of other countries and the institutions would start selling US Treasury. Including but not limited to the America Stock Market, when investors are worried about the economy of the United States, the capitals will choose to act in the way of “Cash Out” and seek other investments such as gold and Bitcoin to hedge the risk.
Due to the reason that digital assets like Bitcoin have not been adopted in the portfolio of worldwide institutions, its time-sensitive to react to the interest reduction on Tuesday was limited. The effect on the Bitcoin market should happen in the medium and long term.
Moreover, the 3rd halving of Bitcoins is expected to happen in May. On the occasion, the block reward of Bitcoin Mining will be reduced from 12.5 to 6.25. The scarcity will directly lift up the value of Bitcoin. In other words, the upcoming halving of Bitcoins is the catalyst to push the Bull market to come out.


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Why Do People Prefer to Buy Cryptocurrency ETF than buying Bitcoins?
Bitcoin, which owns the most recognition in the cryptocurrency industry, theoretically doubles the price after halving. Also, the upgrade of the miner machine is able to double the price due to it increases the budget. Due to the miner machine upgrade, the improving of hash rate makes the possibility of mining disaster become low. So, after the halving, the bitcoin price is likely to increase by 4 times. Takes the bitcoin price $9,000 as the basis, it may rise to a level that more than $30,000.
If you buy Bitcoins on the spot trading market and hold it, when the bitcoin price rises to $30,000, you would earn a 3-times payoff. However, if you buy Bitcoin ETF launched by BitOffer, the highest payoff would be able to reach 17 times due to its automatic positions adjustment mechanism and its compound calculation, which means that its ROI would be much higher than that of Bitcoins on the spot trading market. For investors who prefer long-term investments, Bitcoin ETF has become a much better choice.


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3 Ways Staking Will Upend the Economics of Ethereum

3 Ways Staking Will Upend the Economics of Ethereum
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The Takeaway
  • New analysis of the economic model behind ethereum 2.0 suggests validators can expect to earn 4.6–10.3 percent in annualized rewards at the start.
  • The hardware cost for running ethereum 2.0 validator software may increase as a result of a new design proposal by founder Vitalik Buterin.
  • Even so, the economic model of ethereum 2.0 maintains inflation rates below 1 percent and a dynamically adjusting rewards scale for validators.
As ethereum undergoes a major upgrade in 2020, how might the economics of the second-largest blockchain begin to shift?
The next major iteration of ethereum, dubbed Ethereum 2.0, will be based on a proof-of-stake (PoS) consensus protocol. This means that transactions on the blockchain will be processed and validated by users who stake wealth as opposed to miners who expend energy.
People who stake on ethereum’s PoS network — known as validators — are rewarded by earning annualized interest on their locked-in ether. At present, the minimum amount of ether required to become a validator is 32 ETH, which is equivalent to roughly $5,200.
Collin Myers, head of global product strategy at Consensys, the Brooklyn-based ethereum venture studio, said validators with 32 ETH can expect to earn between 4.6 and 10.3 percent in annualized returns at the launch of the Ethereum 2.0 network.
Myers announced during the recent ethereum developer conference Devcon that he was building a user application enabling validators to calculate annual gross and net returns given varying costs of hardware and electricity.
“The ETH 2.0 Calculator [is being] developed for protocol researchers, validators and enthusiasts to increase transparency and education of the Ethereum 2.0 network economics,” Myers said in a Devcon presentation. He plans to launch the web tool in conjunction with the launch of Ethereum 2.0, which is tentatively planned for the first quarter of 2020.
Of course, current figures on validator rewards for Ethereum 2.0 are by no means set in stone, as the community is still debating the design parameters of the upgrade.
Kristy-Leigh Minehan, former CTO of blockchain and AI startup Core Scientific, who proposed the contentious ethereum mining algorithm change “ProgPoW,” said:
“These are proposed suggestions by ethereum research but until we actually roll over to Ethereum 2.0, none of us will know for sure. They’re constantly tweaking it right now. It can be pretty fluid.”
Myers said community input on the design of Ethereum 2.0 was imperative.
“This is a topic that we will continue to jam on. It’s not completed or ended yet,” he said. “There’s been new things proposed by Vitalik [Buterin] that would [change things] if accepted by the community.”

What might be changing

One of the most recent proposals by ethereum cofounder Vitalik Buterin suggests a sharp reduction in the number of mini-blockchains, or shards, in the initial phases of Ethereum 2.0 deployment.
Instead of launching the full network with 1,024 shards, Buterin proposes launching just 64, thereby improving cross-shard communication on the network.
This proposal has been well-received by researchers and protocol developers, who say lowering the number of shards will reduce the network’s complexity. But a reduction in shard count means a lower number of validators and total stake needed to secure the Ethereum 2.0 network.
“By lowering the shard count, essentially you need to make some other trade-off,” said Myers, adding:
“You’re going to have to increase the power of the independent [validators] running on the network. It’s a higher grade of hardware. It’s going to be a bit more expensive for me to participate as a validator.”
With these caveats, Myers highlighted three important details about Ethereum 2.0’s economic model that he doesn’t see changing any time soon.

Targeted returns

According to Myers’ calculations, validators on Ethereum 2.0 who stake 32 ETH have the potential to earn 10.4 percent in annual interest given the assumption the network launches with 2 million ETH staked.
This 10.4 percent target return for validators is unlikely to change even with only one-sixteenth of the shards originally envisioned for the network. However, “net issuance” (Myers’s term), which takes account of hardware costs, will likely have to be updated.
At launch, validators can expect to receive 5.60 percent of their stake in rewards. If they require a higher grade of hardware to run Ethereum 2.0 software, and there are only 64 shards, returns are likely to fall in value.
“Some say [net returns] will decrease by 20 percent but those numbers aren’t exact and I haven’t made my opinion on that yet,” Myers said.
Validators on a proof-of-stake blockchain like Ethereum 2.0 have a similar responsibility to that of miners on a proof-of-work blockchain. These actors on a blockchain serve to process transactions and append new blocks.
The new model changes the emphasis from computation to control. PoW networks have external costs, such as computational power. Ensuring the honesty of actors on a PoS network are internal mechanisms such as staked value.
The more ETH people stake on Ethereum 2.0, the greater its level of security. The fewer shards there are in Ethereum 2.0, the fewer validators it needs to secure the overall network.
Jack O’Holleran, CEO and founder of ethereum scalability startup Skale Labs, said of this dynamic rewards model:
“On a high level, Ethereum 2.0 is trying to solve the elasticity, as well as, supply and demand, issues of ETH. One real innovative and impactful thing [about Ethereum 2.0] is its dynamic pricing.”

Crowd mentality

Following the launch of Ethereum 2.0, a greater number of validators will be needed to secure the Ethereum 2.0 network and ensure the honesty of all actors.
This is because the first stage of deployment, called Phase Zero, only introduces one PoS blockchain: the “beacon chain.” In a subsequent deployment stage, Phase 1, developers plan to launch 1,024 (or 64) other PoS blockchains, known as shards. To secure all these additional PoS networks, Myers said a higher number of validators, and staked wealth, will be needed in the system.
As the overall staked wealth of the Ethereum 2.0 ecosystem grows, the lower the annualized reward becomes for each individual validator. The dynamic rewards scheme for Ethereum 2.0 ensures that the network is never over- or under-paying for its security.
Fredrik Harrysson, CTO of ethereum software client Parity, told CoinDesk in April:
“There’s a sliding scale of rewards that depends on how much ETH is locked up in stake. In a system where you have very small amounts of stake locked up, you want to encourage more people to stake and lock up more ETH to increase the security of the chain.”
The aim in Phase 1, according to Myers, will be to reduce reward issuance on 32 ETH for each validator to roughly 7.2 percent in interest and 2.39 percent in net profit.
This is comparable to other staking networks, such as Dash and Tezos, which return upwards of 5 percent interest annually.
Annualized rewards for validators on Ethereum 2.0 depend on the overall amount of wealth staked as well as the total percentage of validators online actively processing transactions.
Should only 70 percent of validators be online at a given point in time on the Ethereum 2.0 network, interest rates drop from Myers’s estimate of 7.2 percent to 5.81 percent, at least according to his calculations assuming 1,024 shards.
“[Ethereum 2.0] is a collective rewards scheme. The more people online, the more everyone earns. The less online, the less that people are earning,” Myers said.
“This is one of the design parameters of Ethereum 2.0 that is quite innovative and genius on the human level. It encourages getting people who don’t know each other to collectively come together and do something,” he said.

Network issuance

Even in the ideal scenario of all validators staking 32 ETH in a 1,024 shard universe, the overall network issuance of ether is designed to never exceed 1 percent supply growth annually. This is meant to guard against inflation, and devaluation of purchasing power for the coin over time.
That said, controlling ether supply growth on the current ethereum mainnet has been a persistent source of contention for the ethereum community since launch in 2015.
Unlike bitcoin, with a hard supply cap of 21 million bitcoins, ethereum’s supply of ether will continue to grow over time. Currently, inflation on ethereum is approximately 4.5 percent, according to ethereum information site ETHHub.
Ethereum inflation rates have been as high as 18 percent, but have fallen significantly recently thanks to a series of system-wide upgrades, called hard forks, where developers reduced block rewards issuance in three increments from 5 ETH/block at launch to 2 ETH/block now.
The latest reduction from 3 ETH to 2 ETH was a compromise among ethereum stakeholders who presented conflicting proposals for reducing block rewards.
In Ethereum 2.0, new monetary policies are designed to ensure a consistent level of inflation below one percent and therefore a steady ETH in the long-run.
Of course, all these metrics are subject to revision as developers execute hard forks.
“In the early days of this system, we’re going to hard-fork a bunch. This is healthy because it means we’re squashing old ideas and innovating new ideas,” Myers said. “The more we hard fork, the healthier it means we are.”
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Searching for the Unicorn Cryptocurrency

Searching for the Unicorn Cryptocurrency
For someone first starting out as a cryptocurrency investor, finding a trustworthy manual for screening a cryptocurrency’s merits is nonexistent as we are still in the early, Wild West days of the cryptocurrency market. One would need to become deeply familiar with the inner workings of blockchain to be able to perform the bare minimum due diligence.
One might believe, over time, that finding the perfect cryptocurrency may be nothing short of futile. If a cryptocurrency purports infinite scalability, then it is probably either lightweight with limited features or it is highly centralized among a limited number of nodes that perform consensus services especially Proof of Stake or Delegated Proof of Stake. Similarly, a cryptocurrency that purports comprehensive privacy may have technical obstacles to overcome if it aims to expand its applications such as in smart contracts. The bottom line is that it is extremely difficult for a cryptocurrency to have all important features jam-packed into itself.
The cryptocurrency space is stuck in the era of the “dial-up internet” in a manner of speaking. Currently blockchain can’t scale – not without certain tradeoffs – and it hasn’t fully resolved certain intractable issues such as user-unfriendly long addresses and how the blockchain size is forever increasing to name two.
In other words, we haven’t found the ultimate cryptocurrency. That is, we haven’t found the mystical unicorn cryptocurrency that ushers the era of decentralization while eschewing all the limitations of traditional blockchain systems.
“But wait – what about Ethereum once it implements sharding?”
“Wouldn’t IOTA be able to scale infinitely with smart contracts through its Qubic offering?”
“Isn’t Dash capable of having privacy, smart contracts, and instantaneous transactions?”
Those thoughts and comments may come from cryptocurrency investors who have done their research. It is natural for the informed investors to invest in projects that are believed to bring cutting edge technological transformation to blockchain. Sooner or later, the sinking realization will hit that any variation of the current blockchain technology will always likely have certain limitations.
Let us pretend that there indeed exists a unicorn cryptocurrency somewhere that may or may not be here yet. What would it look like, exactly? Let us set the 5 criteria of the unicorn cryptocurrency:
Unicorn Criteria
(1) Perfectly solves the blockchain trilemma:
o Infinite scalability
o Full security
o Full decentralization
(2) Zero or minimal transaction fee
(3) Full privacy
(4) Full smart contract capabilities
(5) Fair distribution and fair governance
For each of the above 5 criteria, there would not be any middle ground. For example, a cryptocurrency with just an in-protocol mixer would not be considered as having full privacy. As another example, an Initial Coin Offering (ICO) may possibly violate criterion (5) since with an ICO the distribution and governance are often heavily favored towards an oligarchy – this in turn would defy the spirit of decentralization that Bitcoin was found on.
There is no cryptocurrency currently that fits the above profile of the unicorn cryptocurrency. Let us examine an arbitrary list of highly hyped cryptocurrencies that meet the above list at least partially. The following list is by no means comprehensive but may be a sufficient sampling of various blockchain implementations:
Bitcoin (BTC)
Bitcoin is the very first and the best known cryptocurrency that started it all. While Bitcoin is generally considered extremely secure, it suffers from mining centralization to a degree. Bitcoin is not anonymous, lacks smart contracts, and most worrisomely, can only do about 7 transactions per seconds (TPS). Bitcoin is not the unicorn notwithstanding all the Bitcoin maximalists.
Ethereum (ETH)
Ethereum is widely considered the gold standard of smart contracts aside from its scalability problem. Sharding as part of Casper’s release is generally considered to be the solution to Ethereum’s scalability problem.
The goal of sharding is to split up validating responsibilities among various groups or shards. Ethereum’s sharding comes down to duplicating the existing blockchain architecture and sharing a token. This does not solve the core issue and simply kicks the can further down the road. After all, full nodes still need to exist one way or another.
Ethereum’s blockchain size problem is also an issue as will be explained more later in this article.
As a result, Ethereum is not the unicorn due to its incomplete approach to scalability and, to a degree, security.
Dash
Dash’s masternodes are widely considered to be centralized due to their high funding requirements, and there are accounts of a pre-mine in the beginning. Dash is not the unicorn due to its questionable decentralization.
Nano
Nano boasts rightfully for its instant, free transactions. But it lacks smart contracts and privacy, and it may be exposed to well orchestrated DDOS attacks. Therefore, it goes without saying that Nano is not the unicorn.
EOS
While EOS claims to execute millions of transactions per seconds, a quick glance reveals centralized parameters with 21 nodes and a questionable governance system. Therefore, EOS fails to achieve the unicorn status.
Monero (XMR)
One of the best known and respected privacy coins, Monero lacks smart contracts and may fall short of infinite scalability due to CryptoNote’s design. The unicorn rank is out of Monero’s reach.
IOTA
IOTA’s scalability is based on the number of transactions the network processes, and so its supposedly infinite scalability would fluctuate and is subject to the whims of the underlying transactions. While IOTA’s scalability approach is innovative and may work in the long term, it should be reminded that the unicorn cryptocurrency has no middle ground. The unicorn cryptocurrency would be expected to scale infinitely on a consistent basis from the beginning.
In addition, IOTA’s Masked Authenticated Messaging (MAM) feature does not bring privacy to the masses in a highly convenient manner. Consequently, the unicorn is not found with IOTA.

PascalCoin as a Candidate for the Unicorn Cryptocurrency
Please allow me to present a candidate for the cryptocurrency unicorn: PascalCoin.
According to the website, PascalCoin claims the following:
“PascalCoin is an instant, zero-fee, infinitely scalable, and decentralized cryptocurrency with advanced privacy and smart contract capabilities. Enabled by the SafeBox technology to become the world’s first blockchain independent of historical operations, PascalCoin possesses unlimited potential.”
The above summary is a mouthful to be sure, but let’s take a deep dive on how PascalCoin innovates with the SafeBox and more. Before we do this, I encourage you to first become acquainted with PascalCoin by watching the following video introduction:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=4&v=F25UU-0W9Dk
The rest of this section will be split into 10 parts in order to illustrate most of the notable features of PascalCoin. Naturally, let’s start off with the SafeBox.
Part #1: The SafeBox
Unlike traditional UTXO-based cryptocurrencies in which the blockchain records the specifics of each transaction (address, sender address, amount of funds transferred, etc.), the blockchain in PascalCoin is only used to mutate the SafeBox. The SafeBox is a separate but equivalent cryptographic data structure that snapshots account balances. PascalCoin’s blockchain is comparable to a machine that feeds the most important data – namely, the state of an account – into the SafeBox. Any node can still independently compute and verify the cumulative Proof-of-Work required to construct the SafeBox.
The PascalCoin whitepaper elegantly highlights the unique historical independence that the SafeBox possesses:
“While there are approaches that cryptocurrencies could use such as pruning, warp-sync, "finality checkpoints", UTXO-snapshotting, etc, there is a fundamental difference with PascalCoin. Their new nodes can only prove they are on most-work-chain using the infinite history whereas in PascalCoin, new nodes can prove they are on the most-work chain without the infinite history.”
Some cryptocurrency old-timers might instinctively balk at the idea of full nodes eschewing the entire history for security, but such a reaction would showcase a lack of understanding on what the SafeBox really does.
A concrete example would go a long way to best illustrate what the SafeBox does. Let’s say I input the following operations in my calculator:
5 * 5 – 10 / 2 + 5
It does not take a genius to calculate the answer, 25. Now, the expression “5 \ 5 – 10 / 2 + 5”* would be forever imbued on a traditional blockchain’s history. But the SafeBox begs to differ. It says that the expression “5 \ 5 – 10 / 2 + 5”* should instead be simply “25” so as preserve simplicity, time, and space. In other words, the SafeBox simply preserves the account balance.
But some might still be unsatisfied and claim that if one cannot trace the series of operations (transactions) that lead to the final number (balance) of 25, the blockchain is inherently insecure.
Here are four important security aspects of the SafeBox that some people fail to realize:
(1) SafeBox Follows the Longest Chain of Proof-of-Work
The SafeBox mutates itself per 100 blocks. Each new SafeBox mutation must reference both to the previous SafeBox mutation and the preceding 100 blocks in order to be valid, and the resultant hash of the new mutated SafeBox must then be referenced by each of the new subsequent blocks, and the process repeats itself forever.
The fact that each new SafeBox mutation must reference to the previous SafeBox mutation is comparable to relying on the entire history. This is because the previous SafeBox mutation encapsulates the result of cumulative entire history except for the 100 blocks which is why each new SafeBox mutation requires both the previous SafeBox mutation and the preceding 100 blocks.
So in a sense, there is a single interconnected chain of inflows and outflows, supported by Byzantine Proof-of-Work consensus, instead of the entire history of transactions.
More concretely, the SafeBox follows the path of the longest chain of Proof-of-Work simply by design, and is thus cryptographically equivalent to the entire history even without tracing specific operations in the past. If the chain is rolled back with a 51% attack, only the attacker’s own account(s) in the SafeBox can be manipulated as is explained in the next part.
(2) A 51% Attack on PascalCoin Functions the Same as Others
A 51% attack on PascalCoin would work in a similar way as with other Proof-of-Work cryptocurrencies. An attacker cannot modify a transaction in the past without affecting the current SafeBox hash which is accepted by all honest nodes.
Someone might claim that if you roll back all the current blocks plus the 100 blocks prior to the SafeBox’s mutation, one could create a forged SafeBox with different balances for all accounts. This would be incorrect as one would be able to manipulate only his or her own account(s) in the SafeBox with a 51% attack – just as is the case with other UTXO cryptocurrencies. The SafeBox stores the balances of all accounts which are in turn irreversibly linked only to their respective owners’ private keys.
(3) One Could Preserve the Entire History of the PascalCoin Blockchain
No blockchain data in PascalCoin is ever deleted even in the presence of the SafeBox. Since the SafeBox is cryptographically equivalent to a full node with the entire history as explained above, PascalCoin full nodes are not expected to contain infinite history. But for whatever reason(s) one may have, one could still keep all the PascalCoin blockchain history as well along with the SafeBox as an option even though it would be redundant.
Without storing the entire history of the PascalCoin blockchain, you can still trace the specific operations of the 100 blocks prior to when the SafeBox absorbs and reflects the net result (a single balance for each account) from those 100 blocks. But if you’re interested in tracing operations over a longer period in the past – as redundant as that may be – you’d have the option to do so by storing the entire history of the PascalCoin blockchain.
(4) The SafeBox is Equivalent to the Entire Blockchain History
Some skeptics may ask this question: “What if the SafeBox is forever lost? How would you be able to verify your accounts?” Asking this question is tantamount to asking to what would happen to Bitcoin if all of its entire history was erased. The result would be chaos, of course, but the SafeBox is still in line with the general security model of a traditional blockchain with respect to black swans.
Now that we know the security of the SafeBox is not compromised, what are the implications of this new blockchain paradigm? A colorful illustration as follows still wouldn’t do justice to the subtle revolution that the SafeBox ushers. The automobiles we see on the street are the cookie-and-butter representation of traditional blockchain systems. The SafeBox, on the other hand, supercharges those traditional cars to become the Transformers from Michael Bay’s films.
The SafeBox is an entirely different blockchain architecture that is impressive in its simplicity and ingenuity. The SafeBox’s design is only the opening act for PascalCoin’s vast nuclear arsenal. If the above was all that PascalCoin offers, it still wouldn’t come close to achieving the unicorn status but luckily, we have just scratched the surface. Please keep on reading on if you want to learn how PascalCoin is going to shatter the cryptocurrency industry into pieces. Buckle down as this is going to be a long read as we explore further about the SafeBox’s implications.
Part #2: 0-Confirmation Transactions
To begin, 0-confirmation transactions are secure in PascalCoin thanks to the SafeBox.
The following paraphrases an explanation of PascalCoin’s 0-confirmations from the whitepaper:
“Since PascalCoin is not a UTXO-based currency but rather a State-based currency thanks to the SafeBox, the security guarantee of 0-confirmation transactions are much stronger than in UTXO-based currencies. For example, in Bitcoin if a merchant accepts a 0-confirmation transaction for a coffee, the buyer can simply roll that transaction back after receiving the coffee but before the transaction is confirmed in a block. The way the buyer does this is by re-spending those UTXOs to himself in a new transaction (with a higher fee) thus invalidating them for the merchant. In PascalCoin, this is virtually impossible since the buyer's transaction to the merchant is simply a delta-operation to debit/credit a quantity from/to accounts respectively. The buyer is unable to erase or pre-empt this two-sided, debit/credit-based transaction from the network’s pending pool until it either enters a block for confirmation or is discarded with respect to both sender and receiver ends. If the buyer tries to double-spend the coffee funds after receiving the coffee but before they clear, the double-spend transaction will not propagate the network since nodes cannot propagate a double-spending transaction thanks to the debit/credit nature of the transaction. A UTXO-based transaction is initially one-sided before confirmation and therefore is more exposed to one-sided malicious schemes of double spending.”
Phew, that explanation was technical but it had to be done. In summary, PascalCoin possesses the only secure 0-confirmation transactions in the cryptocurrency industry, and it goes without saying that this means PascalCoin is extremely fast. In fact, PascalCoin is capable of 72,000 TPS even prior to any additional extensive optimizations down the road. In other words, PascalCoin is as instant as it gets and gives Nano a run for its money.
Part #3: Zero Fee
Let’s circle back to our discussion of PascalCoin’s 0-confirmation capability. Here’s a little fun magical twist to PascalCoin’s 0-confirmation magic: 0-confirmation transactions are zero-fee. As in you don’t pay a single cent in fee for each 0-confirmation! There is just a tiny downside: if you create a second transaction in a 5-minute block window then you’d need to pay a minimal fee. Imagine using Nano but with a significantly stronger anti-DDOS protection for spam! But there shouldn’t be any complaint as this fee would amount to 0.0001 Pascal or $0.00002 based on the current price of a Pascal at the time of this writing.
So, how come the fee for blazingly fast transactions is nonexistent? This is where the magic of the SafeBox arises in three ways:
(1) PascalCoin possesses the secure 0-confirmation feature as discussed above that enables this speed.
(2) There is no fee bidding competition of transaction priority typical in UTXO cryptocurrencies since, once again, PascalCoin operates on secure 0-confirmations.
(3) There is no fee incentive needed to run full nodes on behalf of the network’s security beyond the consensus rewards.
Part #4: Blockchain Size
Let’s expand more on the third point above, using Ethereum as an example. Since Ethereum’s launch in 2015, its full blockchain size is currently around 2 TB, give or take, but let’s just say its blockchain size is 100 GB for now to avoid offending the Ethereum elitists who insist there are different types of full nodes that are lighter. Whoever runs Ethereum’s full nodes would expect storage fees on top of the typical consensus fees as it takes significant resources to shoulder Ethereum’s full blockchain size and in turn secure the network. What if I told you that PascalCoin’s full blockchain size will never exceed few GBs after thousands of years? That is just what the SafeBox enables PascalCoin to do so. It is estimated that by 2072, PascalCoin’s full nodes will only be 6 GB which is low enough not to warrant any fee incentives for hosting full nodes. Remember, the SafeBox is an ultra-light cryptographic data structure that is cryptographically equivalent to a blockchain with the entire transaction history. In other words, the SafeBox is a compact spreadsheet of all account balances that functions as PascalCoin’s full node!
Not only does the SafeBox’s infinitesimal memory size helps to reduce transaction fees by phasing out any storage fees, but it also paves the way for true decentralization. It would be trivial for every PascalCoin user to opt a full node in the form of a wallet. This is extreme decentralization at its finest since the majority of users of other cryptocurrencies ditch full nodes due to their burdensome sizes. It is naïve to believe that storage costs would reduce enough to the point where hosting full nodes are trivial. Take a look at the following chart outlining the trend of storage cost.

* https://www.backblaze.com/blog/hard-drive-cost-per-gigabyte/
As we can see, storage costs continue to decrease but the descent is slowing down as is the norm with technological improvements. In the meantime, blockchain sizes of other cryptocurrencies are increasing linearly or, in the case of smart contract engines like Ethereum, parabolically. Imagine a cryptocurrency smart contract engine like Ethereum garnering worldwide adoption; how do you think Ethereum’s size would look like in the far future based on the following chart?


https://i.redd.it/k57nimdjmo621.png

Ethereum’s future blockchain size is not looking pretty in terms of sustainable security. Sharding is not a fix for this issue since there still needs to be full nodes but that is a different topic for another time.
It is astonishing that the cryptocurrency community as a whole has passively accepted this forever-expanding-blockchain-size problem as an inescapable fate.
PascalCoin is the only cryptocurrency that has fully escaped the death vortex of forever expanding blockchain size. Its blockchain size wouldn’t exceed 10 GB even after many hundreds of years of worldwide adoption. Ethereum’s blockchain size after hundreds of years of worldwide adoption would make fine comedy.
Part #5: Simple, Short, and Ordinal Addresses
Remember how the SafeBox works by snapshotting all account balances? As it turns out, the account address system is almost as cool as the SafeBox itself.
Imagine yourself in this situation: on a very hot and sunny day, you’re wandering down the street across from your house and ran into a lemonade stand – the old-fashioned kind without any QR code or credit card terminal. The kid across you is selling a lemonade cup for 1 Pascal with a poster outlining the payment address as 5471-55. You flip out your phone and click “Send” with 1 Pascal to the address 5471-55; viola, exactly one second later you’re drinking your lemonade without paying a cent for the transaction fee!
The last thing one wants to do is to figure out how to copy/paste to, say, the following address 1BoatSLRHtKNngkdXEeobR76b53LETtpyT on the spot wouldn’t it? Gone are the obnoxiously long addresses that plague all cryptocurrencies. The days of those unreadable addresses will be long gone – it has to be if blockchain is to innovate itself for the general public. EOS has a similar feature for readable addresses but in a very limited manner in comparison, and nicknames attached to addresses in GUIs don’t count since blockchain-wide compatibility wouldn’t hold.
Not only does PascalCoin has the neat feature of having addresses (called PASAs) that amount to up to 6 or 7 digits, but PascalCoin can also incorporate in-protocol address naming as opposed to GUI address nicknames. Suppose I want to order something from Amazon using Pascal; I simply search the word “Amazon” then the corresponding account number shows up. Pretty neat, right?
The astute reader may gather that PascalCoin’s address system makes it necessary to commoditize addresses, and he/she would be correct. Some view this as a weakness; part #10 later in this segment addresses this incorrect perception.
Part #6: Privacy
As if the above wasn’t enough, here’s another secret that PascalCoin has: it is a full-blown privacy coin. It uses two separate foundations to achieve comprehensive anonymity: in-protocol mixer for transfer amounts and zn-SNARKs for private balances. The former has been implemented and the latter is on the roadmap. Both the 0-confirmation transaction and the negligible transaction fee would make PascalCoin the most scalable privacy coin of any other cryptocurrencies pending the zk-SNARKs implementation.
Part #7: Smart Contracts
Next, PascalCoin will take smart contracts to the next level with a layer-2 overlay consensus system that pioneers sidechains and other smart contract implementations.
In formal terms, this layer-2 architecture will facilitate the transfer of data between PASAs which in turn allows clean enveloping of layer-2 protocols inside layer-1 much in the same way that HTTP lives inside TCP.
To summarize:
· The layer-2 consensus method is separate from the layer-1 Proof-of-Work. This layer-2 consensus method is independent and flexible. A sidechain – based on a single encompassing PASA – could apply Proof-of-Stake (POS), Delegated Proof-of-Stake (DPOS), or Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) as the consensus system of its choice.
· Such a layer-2 smart contract platform can be written in any languages.
· Layer-2 sidechains will also provide very strong anonymity since funds are all pooled and keys are not used to unlock them.
· This layer-2 architecture is ingenious in which the computation is separate from layer-2 consensus, in effect removing any bottleneck.
· Horizontal scaling exists in this paradigm as there is no interdependence between smart contracts and states are not managed by slow sidechains.
· Speed and scalability are fully independent of PascalCoin.
One would be able to run the entire global financial system on PascalCoin’s infinitely scalable smart contract platform and it would still scale infinitely. In fact, this layer-2 architecture would be exponentially faster than Ethereum even after its sharding is implemented.
All this is the main focus of PascalCoin’s upcoming version 5 in 2019. A whitepaper add-on for this major upgrade will be released in early 2019.
Part #8: RandomHash Algorithm
Surely there must be some tradeoffs to PascalCoin’s impressive capabilities, you might be asking yourself. One might bring up the fact that PascalCoin’s layer-1 is based on Proof-of-Work and is thus susceptible to mining centralization. This would be a fallacy as PascalCoin has pioneered the very first true ASIC, GPU, and dual-mining resistant algorithm known as RandomHash that obliterates anything that is not CPU based and gives all the power back to solo miners.
Here is the official description of RandomHash:
“RandomHash is a high-level cryptographic hash algorithm that combines other well-known hash primitives in a highly serial manner. The distinguishing feature is that calculations for a nonce are dependent on partial calculations of other nonces, selected at random. This allows a serial hasher (CPU) to re-use these partial calculations in subsequent mining saving 50% or more of the work-load. Parallel hashers (GPU) cannot benefit from this optimization since the optimal nonce-set cannot be pre-calculated as it is determined on-the-fly. As a result, parallel hashers (GPU) are required to perform the full workload for every nonce. Also, the algorithm results in 10x memory bloat for a parallel implementation. In addition to its serial nature, it is branch-heavy and recursive making in optimal for CPU-only mining.”
One might be understandably skeptical of any Proof-of-Work algorithm that solves ASIC and GPU centralization once for all because there have been countless proposals being thrown around for various algorithms since the dawn of Bitcoin. Is RandomHash truly the ASIC & GPU killer that it claims to be?
Herman Schoenfeld, the inventor behind RandomHash, described his algorithm in the following:
“RandomHash offers endless ASIC-design breaking surface due to its use of recursion, hash algo selection, memory hardness and random number generation.
For example, changing how round hash selection is made and/or random number generator algo and/or checksum algo and/or their sequencing will totally break an ASIC design. Conceptually if you can significantly change the structure of the output assembly whilst keeping the high-level algorithm as invariant as possible, the ASIC design will necessarily require proportional restructuring. This results from the fact that ASIC designs mirror the ASM of the algorithm rather than the algorithm itself.”
Polyminer1 (pseudonym), one of the members of the PascalCoin core team who developed RHMiner (official software for mining RandomHash), claimed as follows:
“The design of RandomHash is, to my experience, a genuine innovation. I’ve been 30 years in the field. I’ve rarely been surprised by anything. RandomHash was one of my rare surprises. It’s elegant, simple, and achieves resistance in all fronts.”
PascalCoin may have been the first party to achieve the race of what could possibly be described as the “God algorithm” for Proof-of-Work cryptocurrencies. Look no further than one of Monero’s core developers since 2015, Howard Chu. In September 2018, Howard declared that he has found a solution, called RandomJS, to permanently keep ASICs off the network without repetitive algorithm changes. This solution actually closely mirrors RandomHash’s algorithm. Discussing about his algorithm, Howard asserted that “RandomJS is coming at the problem from a direction that nobody else is.”
Link to Howard Chu’s article on RandomJS:
https://www.coindesk.com/one-musicians-creative-solution-to-drive-asics-off-monero
Yet when Herman was asked about Howard’s approach, he responded:
“Yes, looks like it may work although using Javascript was a bit much. They should’ve just used an assembly subset and generated random ASM programs. In a way, RandomHash does this with its repeated use of random mem-transforms during expansion phase.”
In the end, PascalCoin may have successfully implemented the most revolutionary Proof-of-Work algorithm, one that eclipses Howard’s burgeoning vision, to date that almost nobody knows about. To learn more about RandomHash, refer to the following resources:
RandomHash whitepaper:
https://www.pascalcoin.org/storage/whitepapers/RandomHash_Whitepaper.pdf
Technical proposal for RandomHash:
https://github.com/PascalCoin/PascalCoin/blob/mastePIP/PIP-0009.md
Someone might claim that PascalCoin still suffers from mining centralization after RandomHash, and this is somewhat misleading as will be explained in part #10.
Part #9: Fair Distribution and Governance
Not only does PascalCoin rest on superior technology, but it also has its roots in the correct philosophy of decentralized distribution and governance. There was no ICO or pre-mine, and the developer fund exists as a percentage of mining rewards as voted by the community. This developer fund is 100% governed by a decentralized autonomous organization – currently facilitated by the PascalCoin Foundation – that will eventually be transformed into an autonomous smart contract platform. Not only is the developer fund voted upon by the community, but PascalCoin’s development roadmap is also voted upon the community via the Protocol Improvement Proposals (PIPs).
This decentralized governance also serves an important benefit as a powerful deterrent to unseemly fork wars that befall many cryptocurrencies.
Part #10: Common Misconceptions of PascalCoin
“The branding is terrible”
PascalCoin is currently working very hard on its image and is preparing for several branding and marketing initiatives in the short term. For example, two of the core developers of the PascalCoin recently interviewed with the Fox Business Network. A YouTube replay of this interview will be heavily promoted.
Some people object to the name PascalCoin. First, it’s worth noting that PascalCoin is the name of the project while Pascal is the name of the underlying currency. Secondly, Google and YouTube received excessive criticisms back then in the beginning with their name choices. Look at where those companies are nowadays – surely a somewhat similar situation faces PascalCoin until the name’s familiarity percolates into the public.
“The wallet GUI is terrible”
As the team is run by a small yet extremely dedicated developers, multiple priorities can be challenging to juggle. The lack of funding through an ICO or a pre-mine also makes it challenging to accelerate development. The top priority of the core developers is to continue developing full-time on the groundbreaking technology that PascalCoin offers. In the meantime, an updated and user-friendly wallet GUI has been worked upon for some time and will be released in due time. Rome wasn’t built in one day.
“One would need to purchase a PASA in the first place”
This is a complicated topic since PASAs need to be commoditized by the SafeBox’s design, meaning that PASAs cannot be obtained at no charge to prevent systematic abuse. This raises two seemingly valid concerns:
· As a chicken and egg problem, how would one purchase a PASA using Pascal in the first place if one cannot obtain Pascal without a PASA?
· How would the price of PASAs stay low and affordable in the face of significant demand?
With regards to the chicken and egg problem, there are many ways – some finished and some unfinished – to obtain your first PASA as explained on the “Get Started” page on the PascalCoin website:
https://www.pascalcoin.org/get_started
More importantly, however, is the fact that there are few methods that can get your first PASA for free. The team will also release another method soon in which you could obtain your first PASA for free via a single SMS message. This would probably become by far the simplest and the easiest way to obtain your first PASA for free. There will be more new ways to easily obtain your first PASA for free down the road.
What about ensuring the PASA market at large remains inexpensive and affordable following your first (and probably free) PASA acquisition? This would be achieved in two ways:
· Decentralized governance of the PASA economics per the explanation in the FAQ section on the bottom of the PascalCoin website (https://www.pascalcoin.org/)
· Unlimited and free pseudo-PASAs based on layer-2 in the next version release.
“PascalCoin is still centralized after the release of RandomHash”
Did the implementation of RandomHash from version 4 live up to its promise?
The official goals of RandomHash were as follow:
(1) Implement a GPU & ASIC resistant hash algorithm
(2) Eliminate dual mining
The two goals above were achieved by every possible measure.
Yet a mining pool, Nanopool, was able to regain its hash majority after a significant but a temporary dip.
The official conclusion is that, from a probabilistic viewpoint, solo miners are more profitable than pool miners. However, pool mining is enticing for solo miners who 1) have limited hardware as it ensures a steady income instead of highly profitable but probabilistic income via solo mining, and 2) who prefer convenient software and/or GUI.
What is the next step, then? While the barrier of entry for solo miners has successfully been put down, additional work needs to be done. The PascalCoin team and the community are earnestly investigating additional steps to improve mining decentralization with respect to pool mining specifically to add on top of RandomHash’s successful elimination of GPU, ASIC, and dual-mining dominance.
It is likely that the PascalCoin community will promote the following two initiatives in the near future:
(1) Establish a community-driven, nonprofit mining pool with attractive incentives.
(2) Optimize RHMiner, PascalCoin’s official solo mining software, for performance upgrades.
A single pool dominance is likely short lived once more options emerge for individual CPU miners who want to avoid solo mining for whatever reason(s).
Let us use Bitcoin as an example. Bitcoin mining is dominated by ASICs and mining pools but no single pool is – at the time of this writing – even close on obtaining the hash majority. With CPU solo mining being a feasible option in conjunction with ASIC and GPU mining eradication with RandomHash, the future hash rate distribution of PascalCoin would be far more promising than Bitcoin’s hash rate distribution.
PascalCoin is the Unicorn Cryptocurrency
If you’ve read this far, let’s cut straight to the point: PascalCoin IS the unicorn cryptocurrency.
It is worth noting that PascalCoin is still a young cryptocurrency as it was launched at the end of 2016. This means that many features are still work in progress such as zn-SNARKs, smart contracts, and pool decentralization to name few. However, it appears that all of the unicorn criteria are within PascalCoin’s reach once PascalCoin’s technical roadmap is mostly completed.
Based on this expository on PascalCoin’s technology, there is every reason to believe that PascalCoin is the unicorn cryptocurrency. PascalCoin also solves two fundamental blockchain problems beyond the unicorn criteria that were previously considered unsolvable: blockchain size and simple address system. The SafeBox pushes PascalCoin to the forefront of cryptocurrency zeitgeist since it is a superior solution compared to UTXO, Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG), Block Lattice, Tangle, and any other blockchain innovations.


THE UNICORN

Author: Tyler Swob
submitted by Kosass to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

SegWit is Not An On-Chain Scaling Solution (a summary)

Hi all,
Just to recap what we know about SegWit in light of some recent discussions:
If I have any misconceptions I would love to be corrected on any of the above. If anyone else has any concise logical evidence-based summaries of why SegWit should not be deployed as a scaling solution or is better deployed as a hard fork, I would be happy to add them to the list above and create a comprehensive argument.
PS - I am banned from Bitcoin but I doubt this post would get any traction there anyway.
submitted by theonetruesexmachine to btc [link] [comments]

WSB101 - THE BOOK OF YOLO: BEGINNERS GUIDE TO TRADING LIKE A DEGENERATE AND EVERYTHING WSB

The Book of Yolo: COMPLETE GUIDE TO WSB
The goal of this is to actually create something that all of you WSB newbies can read - because we’re all tired of seeing the endless wave of uninformed and unavoidable stupidity from those who have never touched the stock market. CALLING ALL NEWFAGS AND NORMIES.
If you can’t read, GFY now.
Now that we will be on the popular section of reddit, this has become pertinent. WSB can't avoid newcomers, so we might as well explain how the clock ticks here. This one is for you all.
This is to serve as a reference what values we hold, what instruments we use, and as a general place to educated the uneducated.
First off, this is the LEAST helpful stock market-based community for newcomers. Sarcastic answers are the only thing of true value here. It isn't a place to learn, but a place to plan out where you will dock your yacht. Newcomers are usually berated upon asking the inevitable stupid questions that they could learn slowly from reading here, or just using a damn search engine. Instead of embarrassing yourself here, you now have the opportunity to read this and get what we’re all rambling about.
This will help you understand what to expect if you make the decision to undertake a WSB style trading career, so you can stay here and contribute to the yolo lifestyle or otherwise GFY.
I will edit in any suggestions that our frequenting users or mods want to add to this as well.
To begin: Here are our topics for WSB101
-Basics (Equities/Stocks)
;
-ETF's
;
-Options
;
-Futures Trading
;
-SubCulture
;
BASICS/EQUTIES Skip if you understand basic stock stuff
Okay, so what is an equity/stock? An equity is essentially what you’d think of as your “vanilla” trading tool. They move up or down depending on market forces, and can range from pennies to thousands of dollars per share. To explain how stocks work, let's define a few terms.
Volume: The number of shares of stock traded during a particular time period, normally measured in average daily trading volume.
Spread: The difference between the bid and the ask price
Bid Price: The current price in which someone wants to buy at
Ask Price:The current price in which someone wants to sell at
Volatility: The WSB favorite. Volatility is referring to the price movements of a stock as a whole. The higher the volatility, the more the stock is moving up or down. Highly volatile stocks are ones with extreme daily up and down movements and wide intraday trading ranges.
Margin: A margin account lets a person borrow money (take out a loan essentially) from a broker to purchase an investment. The difference between the amount of the loan, and the price of the securities, is called the margin. Margin is one of WSB’s popular instruments of wealth and destruction.
Dividend: This is a portion of a company’s earnings that is paid to shareholders, or people that own hat company’s stock, on a quarterly or annual basis. Not all companies do this.
PPS: Acronym for “Price per Share”
Moving Average: A stock’s average price-per-share during a specific period of time.
Bullish: Expecting the stock to go up
Bearish: Expecting the stock to go down
Any raised hands can redirect themselves to here:
http://www.investopedia.com/articles/investing/082614/how-stock-market-works.asp?ad=dirN&qo=investopediaSiteSearch&qsrc=0&o=40186
Now that these terms are defined, let's move into the details of why this is even useful. Most people know what a stock is, but how and why stocks move is a different story. The stock market is essentially a big virtualization of supply and demand - meaning that usually high positive volume creates upwards movement in the PPS, where high negative volume does the opposite. This creates a trader’s opportunity; Generally, the most effective time to buy or sell is where the candlesticks (volume data) are thinning out. When you are ready to take an entry point or execute an exit point, waiting till the volatility (candlesticks) thin out is one method to give you best trade possible.
WSB FAVORITE EQUITIES: Of many equities, WSB favors the riskier ones - but avoiding penny stocks is a policy.
AMD - CEO Lisa Su, Next Gen Processors, chips, graphics. It’s the gamers gambit. Up roughly 1400% as of 2/7/2017 since WSB first mentioned it
NVDA - AMD’s sister? Mother? Daddy? Who knows. NVDA has been a sexy semiconductor leader. Is up 400% since gaining traction on WSB.
FNMA / pfds - Mnunchin, Trump, Big fat fannies. Get your self deep in the fannie. We all want it. WSB 10 bagger candidate for reforming the housing market. WSB holds a large cumulative position that can be seen below. Also a good read is the beginners guide to FNMA. Any post by u/NOVACPA is very often VERY informative on FMNA/pfds.
https://www.reddit.com/wallstreetbets/comments/5oissp/results_wsb_fnmafmcc_holdings
https://www.reddit.com/wallstreetbets/comments/5t7gba/beginngers_guide_to_fnma_fmcc_read_this_before/
ARRY - A biotech champion that prevailed after a lot of failures and huge losses in the biotech sector. Dark times for WSB. Up ~300% since getting traction on the subreddit.
TWTR - WSB likes to buy put option contracts on her. Exemplary of a social media platform that is unable to monetize itself.
TSLA - Maybe not unanimously a favorite, but loved for it’s sexy volatility, Elon Musk, and ridiculously expensive options.
GILD - A Shkreli pump and dump? The greatest large cap pharma recovery of all time? Who knows. Martin took the time to make a post on this reddit and it is up $5 dollars since.
ETF'S
Welcome to the world of investing made easy. Exchange traded funds (etfs) are devices that can be traded like stocks, but often track the value of many companies by investing in their listed assets accordingly. Specifically, An ETF, or exchange traded fund, is a marketable security that tracks an index, a commodity, bonds, or a basket of assets like an index fund. Unlike mutual funds, an ETF trades like a common stock on a stock exchange. ETFs experience price changes throughout the day as they are bought and sold. ETFs typically have higher daily liquidity and lower fees than mutual fund shares, making them an attractive alternative for individual investors.
ETF’s come in beautiful and delicious varieties, often with a BEAR form and a BULL form of each; but the most delicious to WSB are the 3x etf’s. A 3x ETF is one in which the underlying movement of the ETF is leveraged 3:1. Meaning for every movement within the underlying index or stocks, the 3x ETF moves well.... 3x as much..
WSB FAVORITE AND USEFUL ETF’S:
JNUG - 3x Gold Miner Bull - A hit or miss, has extreme intraday movements and essentially tracks GDX (gold miner’s index). Jnug will usually move with a pretty strong correlation to gold, which is affected by the mentioning of rate hikes (negatively), movement of the US dollar (inversely), uncertainty (positively), and supply and demand.
NUGT - Jnug with a different price tag
JDST - The inverse 3x etf of JNUG - or the bear etf. It does almost exactly the opposite movements of JNUG by the tick. Moves for the same reasons, but obviously opposite directions.
DUST - Jdst with a different price tag.
UGAZ - Natural Gas 3x Bull ETF - essentially tracks the price value of the commodity Natural Gas, but more specifically the S&P GSCI Natural Gas Index ER. The index comprises futures contracts on a single commodity and is calculated according to the methodology of the S&P GSCI Index. Natural gas is most affected by Weather temperature conditions (use your brain), petroleum prices, and broader economic conditions.
DGAZ - Inverse of UGAZ
UWT - Crude Oil Bull 3x ETF - extreme intraday movements, closely follows the price of oil. More specifically, it tracks futures. UWT seeks to replicate, net of expenses, three times of the S&P GSCI® Crude Oil Index ER. The index tracks a hypothetical position in the nearest-to-expiration NYMEX light sweet crude oil futures contract, which is rolled each month into the futures contract expiring in the next month. The value of the index fluctuates with changes in the price of the relevant NYMEX light sweet crude oil futures contracts.
DWT - Inverse of UWT
FAS - Financial Bull, specifically FAS seeks daily investment results, before fees and expenses, of 300% of the performance of the Russell 1000 ® Financial Services Index. The fund creates long positions by investing at least 80% of its assets in the securities that comprise the Russell 1000 ® Financial Services Index and/or financial instruments that provide leveraged and unleveraged exposure to the index. Can be used when bullish on US financial services - so banks, lenders, etc.
FAZ - Inverse of FAS
UPRO - S&P500 Bull 3x ETF, essentially tracks the S&P500 and multiplies it’s returns by 3x.
BRZU - Tracks Brazil (in its most basic form). It creates long positions in the MSCI Brazil 25/50 Index.
LABU - Tracks the Biotech sector, or specifically 300% of the performance of the S&P Biotechnology Select Industry Index ("index"). It should be noted that LABU has doubled since just before the election of Donald Trump.
LABD - Inverse of LABU
RUSL - roughly creates 300% of the performance of the MVIS Russia Index.
RUSS - Inverse of RUSL
SPY - Tracks the S&P500, but is not 3x.
OPTIONS:
Alright, so half you are going to understand this, and half of you are not. Pull up an options chain now on any stock (penny stocks and specific stocks do not have chains because of their market cap). Options are truly the ultimate way to achieve maximum risk/reward.
An option is a contract that gives the buyer the right to buy or sell 100 shares of a stock at a certain price, on a certain date. This concept makes options a commodity themselves.
KEY TERMS:
A CALL - is the right to buy. Buying calls is taking a bullish position in its most extreme form.
A PUT - is the right to sell.
The underlying - is the stock that the option is covering i.e. AAPL, GOOG, AMZN
Strike Price - the price at which a put or call option can be exercised.
ITM, In the money - In the money means that a call option's strike price is below the market price of the underlying asset or that the strike price of a put option is above the market price of the underlying asset. Being in the money does not mean you will profit, it just means the option is worth exercising.
OTM, Out of the money - a call option with a strike price that is higher than the market price of the underlying asset, or a put option with a strike price that is lower than the market price of the underlying asset.
ATM - At the money - Strike price at the same price as the underlying
Expiration - Expiries for options are every friday of every week usually, with exceptions such as every month, or every other day - depending on the underlying. SPY and SPX are great examples of very active option chains with expiries every other day. On the expiry date or any time before (with american options), an option can be, but doesn’t have to be exercised, meaning the holder of the option can use it to buy or sell shares of the underlying stock at the strike price. Most people on WSB do not exercise the contracts, but merely flip them for increases in value as the underlying moves.
For example, when AAPL was at 120 before its earnings report, Joe Shmoe Yolo buys 10 FEB 17th CALLS at strike 127 for .60 , each. Now .60 cents is really 60 dollars each, because the contract is multiplied by 100 (the right to 100 shares). In total, Joe Shmoe Yolo spends $600 dollars + commision on this trade. The next day, AAPL leaps to 130 upon great news. These same option contracts are now worth 3.50 each. $350 dollars per contract, times ten contracts is $3500 dollars. Joe Shmoe Yolo just turned $600 into $3500 dollars. MAGIC. Spoiler alert: Joe Shmoe Yolo was me.
That same Joe Shmoe later buys FEB 17th XOM calls at 90, hoping for similar results. However, XOM ends up never reaching anywhere close to the strike price, and the options expire worthless. Get it?
Now what determines the pricing of options?
OPTION PRICING:
Below is sourced from investopedia
Intrinsic Value: The intrinsic value is the actual value of a company or an asset based on an underlying perception of its true value including all aspects of the business, in terms of both tangible and intangible factors. This value may or may not be the same as the current market value. Additionally, intrinsic value is primarily used in options pricing to indicate the amount an option is in the money.
Time Value: Time Value = Option Price - Intrinsic Value. The more time an option has until it expires, the greater the chance it will end up in the money. The time component of an option decays exponentially. The actual derivation of the time value of an option is a fairly complex equation. As a general rule, an option will lose one-third of its value during the first half of its life and two-thirds during the second half of its life. This is an important concept for securities investors because the closer you get to expiration, the more of a move in the underlying security is needed to impact the price of the option. Time value is basically the risk premium that the option seller requires to provide the option buyer the right to buy/sell the stock up to the date the option expires. It is like an insurance premium of the option; the higher the risk, the higher the cost to buy the option. Makes sense, right?
Time value is determined by the expiration date. An expiration date in derivatives is the last day that an options contract is valid. When investors buy options, the contracts gives them the right but not the obligation, to buy or sell the assets at a predetermined price, called a strike price, within a given time period, which is on or before the expiration date. If an investor chooses not to exercise that right, the option expires and becomes worthless, and the investor loses the money paid to buy it.
Volatility:
In an options pricing, you see IV. This stands for implied volatility. The higher that is, the higher the options will be priced Volatility is the extent to which the return of the underlying asset will fluctuate between now and the option's expiration. Volatility, as expressed as a percentage coefficient within option-pricing formulas, arises from daily trading activities. How volatility is measured will affect the value of the coefficient used.
Decaying Nature of Options:
Decay refers to derivative trading (i.e. options). When you sell or buy a call/put (using those two for simplicity purposes) you don't get an infinite time frame to make your dreams come true. Time is your enemy; the further out the expiration date, the less time decay there is. Time decay really hits the worst the week of expiration. Sound confusing? Say you're buying options of the stock WSB (I hope you're seeing what I did there) - and the option costs $1, the expiration is this Friday. Say today is Monday. You buy a call expecting WSB to take you to the moon and beyond. Each day the stock doesn't move closer to your strike price or remains stagnant/drops, you lose value on your option + the time decay. Meaning if it finishes closer to your strike price, your option could be worthless because of that time decay. Questions? Ask away.
A great example of these factors in action is TSLA.
TSLA’s options are among the most expensive for companies in its price range, why?
An in the money TSLA call expiring this week is worth around $1100 per contract. Insanely expensive. But for a reason. TSLA has extreme intraday movements and calls have an implied volatility of 40.92%. Which is fairly high. In addition to that, it holds high intrinsic value / price per share, and a week of time value.
-Futures 101 - The Ultimate YOLO Guide (thanks to u/IncendiaryGames)
Okay, a lot of you have been YOLOing on faggot delights on SPY options. How would you like to trade something with the same or more leverage, 1.0 delta, and no time premium costs? Have you considered futures? What are futures? Unlike options, futures is a contract where both the buyer and seller is obligated to perform the transaction by the expiration. Conversely, in options, only the seller is obligated to perform. That means you can lose more than your investment. Originally they were used by farmers to sell future crops early and guarantee some amount of sales. Since then futures have expanded not just to commodities but currency and equity indices like the S&P 500. Why the heck would I want to trade futures? Here are the advantages: Leverage $5k is the margin requirement for most contracts. For example with the E-mini S&P 500 with 5k you're trading $120k worth of stuff. 1 contract = 500 spy shares. Some brokers offer intraday daytrading margin rates too - TD Ameritrade is 25% of the overnight margin rate($1,250.) Some brokers go as low as $500 an /ES future. SPAN Margin If 24x overnight leverage and 240x day trade leverage didn't give you a hard on there is also SPAN margin, which is like portfolio margin on steroids. The beauty of SPAN margin is you don't need a $125k+ account to be eligible. SPAN will greatly reduce your margin requirements if you hold uncorrelated or inversely correlated positions (up to an 80% discount, here is a list of groups that give discounts) and if you hedge with options. Hedge with the right option or asset and now you have up to 500x day trading margin. 23/7 and day trading Ever get in and out of an equity only to have your broker yell at you to stop doing that or deposit $25k? There is no pattern day trading restrictions on futures. Feel free to day trade and blow up your account as often as you want! You can also trade 23 hours a day. Get trading on how the S&P 500 index will react to news from China right away. Taxes No matter how long or how short you hold you always get taxed under the 60/40 rule. 60% of your profit from futures will be taxed as a long term gain and 40% will be taxed as short term gain. No wash sales. Trade your hearts out. Just remember holding past Dec 31st will treat you as if you closed all your positions that day and you'll be taxed on unrealized gains. Long/Short No need to pay interest or borrow shares as being short a future contract is being a writer, just like an options writer. Options Of course there are options. What fun would it be without options? Unlike stock options each contract gives different number of future contracts. Research what you're trading.
Ok. I'm convinced. I want to strat trading futures! What are some good strategies?
YOLO Strategies
Swing trading Trying to guess/predict/ride sudden market momentum. A low volume average day in the S&P 500 (/ES) for one contract can swing +- $500. Get it right and you can see a huge appreciation of value. /ES is usually highly liquid during regular hours with average volume of 1 million trades and usually bid-ask spreads of one tick. One approach is to buy or short in your direction and put in a stop loss to an amount you're comfortable to lose (say $200.) Since it's so liquid you'll likely be filled at or near your stop loss during the day if your trade goes against you. If you can guess the direction 50% of the time and have trades like this: trade 1 - gain $800 trade 2 - lose $200 Then you may profit over the time period. If you have a 50% chance of being wrong and losing $200 or 50% chance of being right and gaining $800 then over time you'll gain more than you lose. Also, since the present value of your futures contract is included in your margin calculation then if it goes strongly in your favor your position can quickly grow to cover its own margin and you can let it ride for a while. You'll want to be sure you enter a combo buy/short order along with a stop loss order simultaneously, like this for Thinkorswim. Futures can move suddenly and a sudden movement can make you lose a ton of money. Exploiting outdated SPAN margin guidelines There are several out of date correlations between popular futures like oil and say things like wheat that SPAN gives you margin credits on. Take whatever position you want in oil (/cl) then take the opposite in something that doesn't move much day to day with less volatility such as /w (wheat)) and your /cl and /w positions will get a 75% credit, giving you 50% more buying power on crude oil. (2 positions * .25 = 0.5). Trade your heart out on the more volatile future then when you're done close your safer future pair. SPAN is constantly changing but such a complex system definitely has its exploits. Automated/algorithmic trading For you programmer geeks out there it's really hard to algorithmic trade on small accounts due to pattern day trading rules and economies of scale with broker fees. Futures is probably the best way to get your feet wet. Join us on /algotrading if you want to explore more!
Boring safer strategies
I'm including these for completeness but these belong on /investing. Scalping With high frequency trading scalping is less guaranteed. Basically scalping is using tiny momentum as usually there are small micro patterns in futures buying and selling activity where it will rise or fall a couple of ticks. Since the notional value of each tick is $12.5 it's profitable for retail investors and small accounts to act as a market maker after fees at the smallest bid-ask spread possible. Spreads Just like you can trade spreads in options, you can trade calendar spreads in futures. Futures have contracts with different expiration dates and the prices are different for each month of expiration based on the market's expectations. You can go long or short the near month expiration and the opposite for the far month. This will hedge out any sudden market moves as that would likely affect both months. Bull markets in general tend to increase the price of the near month faster than the far month. Basically with a spread trade you're making a long term bet on bull or bear for the underlying future. Pairs trading You can go long in one future say the dow jones (/ym) and short the S&P 500 index and profit off the relative growth. This is a hedged trade as any market ups or downs will likely affect both positions with the same % value. For the past 180 days /ym - /es has been really profitable. Even if you don't do a full perfect pairs trade it is still a great option to reduce the leverage too on whatever index future you're trading so you can stay in longer or overnight. Interest rate and optimal leverage plays Since the $5k investment is equal to $120k of the S&P 500 index currently then you'll likely beat out the market by buying one future contract and putting $115k in safe treasuries or bonds or uncorrelated assets. Some people choose to leverage their stock portfolio and you can get the exact leverage ratio of liquid investments to future ratios. In probability theory the max leverage you can gain is determined by the Kelly Criterion which modeling shows indicates the S&P 500 index to be leveraged to 1.40x. Yes, you could do the same with options but even on SPY deep in the money call leaps are illiquid and have a time premium. Even today they are so deep ITM that the options you would need to use have 0 open interest and a bid-ask spread of $5 per share (so $500 per contract.) You'd need ~5 contracts per 120k so you're already eating $2.5k/$120k - 2% interest rate a year for that leverage. SPX isn't better, it's bid ask is 22 so you'd be eating $2.2k/$120k - 1.83% interest rate. It's doubtful you won't get much past the ask as its only market makers providing liquidity and guess what the market maker will do if you buy/sell the option? They will hedge with the underlying futures until their minimum profit is the risk free interest rate. Hedging Going long and short in various non correlated or negatively correlated assets to seek out a high sharpe ratio and have a higher risk free return that is market neutral. Basic hedge fund stuff. The variety and price efficiency of futures makes things pretty attractive in this area.
SUBCULTURE
Wallstreetbets is a community that has become infamous for the most wild west, moon or cardboard box trades on the planet earth. WSB is a place where you can take out thousand dollar loans, refinance your homes, cash advance all of your credit cards only to put it all on JNUG, and we will still love you. Your mother won't. Your father will never understand your spectrum of autism, but we will always love you. It is a uniquely beautiful community focused on praising its biggest losers as much as its biggest winners. To begin on the subculture, we should define some key moments in the sub's history.
HISTORY: (As made by u/digadiga) + my additions
2012: Jartek [+1] creates /wallstreetbets, and word slowly starts to ooze out. 2013: americanpegasus discovers pennies. AP has seen the light, and is a penny stock evangelist. Jartek & AP have an epic options vs pennies battle - they both lose a couple of hundred bucks, but we are entertained, and WSB is officially born. AP blows up his retirement, swears off pennies and moves onto bitcoins. 2014: fscomeau [+3] discovers options. He repeatedly bets five figures on AAPL calls before earnings. FS claims a supernatural clairvoyance of AAPL. FS then posts about his chest pains and ER visits. He finally suffers an epic loss. Is he dead? Is he alive? Is he is mother? Is he banned? Who cares? 2015: Photos from the 3rd annual meetup are posted. Where a bunch of dudes hang out on the romantic beaches of Guerrero Mexico. In a completely unrelated event, the wsb banner is changed to thousands of ejaculating dicks. Modpocalypse occurs. Hundreds of random users are added as moderators for a few months. None of the new mods can change the CSS. The constant whining about how "wsb isn't what it used to be" continues. Someone attempts to show how selling covered calls is idiot proof, but gets lazy, bets all six figures on Apple, and suffers significant losses. Robinhood gets popular. Should you buy one share of AMZN or one share of GOOGL? Who gives a fuck. 2016: Everyone starts saying "go fuck yourself." Except me. Because I am what I am. And if you don't like it, you can all go fuck yourselves. u/World_Chaos performs one of the more impressive yolo's of the sub, starting with 900 dollars, and turning it into 55k. https://www.reddit.com/wallstreetbets/comments/414blh/yofuckinglo_900_to_55k_in_12_days/?ref=share&ref_source=link 2017: u/fscomeau preforms what he calls "The Final Yolo", a 300k trade against AAPL before earnings (that I, u/thor303456 inversed), supposedly supposed to net fscomeau 2.5 million or so, in which he will finally stop trading. FSC is featured on several market related articles and newspapers, showing up on yahoo, etc. Later we find proof during his livestream of AAPL earnings that he was paper trading. Even later, FSC writes a near 200 page book called "Wolfie Has Fallen" describing how he trolled the entire internet, some following him into that AAPL trade. Martin Shkreli visits the sub and proclaims that GILD pharma is worth over $100 a share and is deeply undervalued.
KEY FIGURES:
Donald J Trump - He is the Marmalade Manchurian, the Tangerine Tycoon, and our spray tan Stalin. Unbelievable night of election. WSB demographics show a primarily capitalist and right wing (or at least joking to be so) point of view, and thus we are generally pro trump. In actuality though, WSB is focused on pro-market, which Trump happens to be.
u/Jartek - Founder of the sub, original yoloer. Believe he has retired from reddit for the most part. Mostly inactive.
u/Fscomeau - The Canadian as some call him, and perhaps one of the most profound internet trolls of 2016-2017. A French-Canadian trader who deals with mostly options. The man has been called "The Great Inverse", and for a good reason. Nearly all of the trades or statements he made on WSB were completely wrong or mostly wrong. Truly the strongest technical indicator.
Martin Shkreli - An idol to many WSBers, Martin stands as the master of the biotech sector. A very debated character for very stupid reasons. Martin regularly tweets about the stock market, occasionally does a youtube channel, and livestreams fairly regularly.
u/theycallme1 - Educated trader, and mod of WSB. Roasts people often and roasts them good. Ask him the questions that aren't stupid. One of the most active mods.
u/world_chaos - some fucking college student with some real net worth. Sits on 100k or so (needs verification), and was an inspiring yoloer to all, with his 900 to 55k yolo with options.
Lingo, Terminology, and Nomenclature:
The Faggots Delights - Truly the most suicidal, yet clearest shot to the moon. This term is usually used to define either weekly, or daily option plays on the SPY/SPX. Some users trade them very profitably, such as u/MRPguy and many in the past.
Cuck - Truly the worst thing you could be. A cuck is a man who likes watching his wife/girlfriend fuck other guys. Weak, spineless, and a term often throw around here.
The YOLO - You only live once. This is something that is, and should be realized as undeniably true. Why are you sitting on a 5k emergency fund that is making you less interest in a year than what I just made in 10 minutes? Why haven't you used all of the credit on your 5 credit cards or used your testicles as collateral for a loan yet? YOLO or YOLOING is as much a psychological decision to embrace absurdism, and win with everything you have while risking it all. Yolo is what it means to be a WSB trader.
Bagholding or a Bagholder - When you're stuck with the most ass trade of your life, because you know it'll go back up. A bagholder is the 59 year old guy at the grocery store who won't quit his Job because he knows he only has to wait another year until he gets a return on his investment (of his life). Anyone holding SUNEQ is the definition of a bagholder.
Autists - Something we embrace, something we call each other, something we all are. Autism isn't used in an offensive way as much as it is a generally accepted term that defines us. The best traders have autism because of their distance from emotion. I bet you never made it to this part of the reading because you're such a damn autist.
Tendies - Tendies are what you get after you make a small amount of money. "I SOLD AMD TODAY FOR A $13 DOLLAR PROFIT, GOING TO MCD's TO GET MY TENDIES". Tendie money is usually shameful and insignificant, but at least it got you tendies. Chicken tenders at McDonalds are the least expensive for the most cholesterol.
I know some of the writing was half ass, full of errors, or otherwise not the best explanation. But I believe this will serve its purpose, and maybe help to promote new ideas from moderately educated traders. WSB has very strong traders, and the most uniquely risky trading styles on the planet. Hopefully this can serve to better the overall community.
You guys are all faggots, upvote this so we can get the noobs to stop trying to bite on our cocks.
Also I'd really appreciate input on anything to add to this overall. It took my over 3 hours to write up, so I eventually grew tired and probably have missing spots.
Enjoy your time here at WSB.
EDIT: Added a shit ton of stuff, fixed errors. THANKS FOR ALL OF YOUR INPUT, ACTUALLY MAKING WSB GREAT AGAIN
MODS: Can we make this editable by others mods or something? My fingers aren't enough. Seems like this could serve as a good "official" thing. Paging u/theycallme1 u/CHAINSAW_VASECTOMY etc
submitted by Thor303456 to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]

51% attack on monacoin

IMPORTANT NOTE 2018,05.21.

Monacoin dev sent Lae an email, saying that his current advice for exchanges is to increase confirmations to 100 for now, and that he doesn't have a concrete plan moving forward yet.

Original post:

Currently we are having an 51%+selfish mining+timestamp attack on monacoin reported by several people. Some exchanges (Bittrex, Livecoin) alreday disabled depositing Monacoin, i suggest other exchanges to disable it as well temporarly. monacoin dev suggests to set confirmation time to 100 and everything can resume.

What is happening?

-one of the mining community witholds the blocks
-due to buggy diff retarget calculation the next block can be mined very easily
-new blocks can be issued rapidly
-result 1 = faulty confirmed payments into exchanges (hidden block with a hidden transaction to different address from earlyer and not to exchange + issuing block with payment to exchange and rapidly issued forged blocks relation to this block -> exchange detects proper number of confirmations, then they free up the real block as well, resulting the original forged blocks to be orphanged -> the new chain has no payment to the exchange, but the payment is alreday in the exchange database -> swapping to other coins and withdraw)
-result 2 = and stealing the block reward from a lot of blocks
The bug is the quite similar as Verge had a month ago. Increasing block age for deposits will not fix it, but increasing the block confirmations actually secures you from the attack aniway. Exchangers and online services should increase it above 100. (There is difference as in Verge the timestamp itself was faked - here a different algorithmic error plays role, which the developers must first find).
The main issue (witholding the blocks) was discovered earlyer, but until now it was not a threat (now it became malicious due to this retarget bug - basically combining this 3 phenomon together). The attacker attempts to do the attack for half year with automated mechanisms, now he succeeded.
You may continue using monacoin for buying and selling stuff, but wait a few hours before shipping the product.
Western exchages (Livecoin) lost $90k usd due to attack.
(The bug probably exists with almost all of the bitcoin clones as well - but you must be able to withold blocks to exploit it. )
Your personal Monacoin holdings are not in danger.
The network and transactions - besides this - working as usual, you can continue using your wallet as you did before.
This does NOT have any impact on you as a regular user.
Disclaimer:
  1. i am nobody, and i am not a core developer
  2. i cant check the credibility of the informations i posted above
  3. we are trying to reconstruct whats happening. the monacoin developers dont speak english, and we dont speak japanese
  4. i am programmer, but i am not expert in crypto in any ways
  5. i am not affiliated with monacoin project
  6. meanwhile the title says 51% attack, its possible to achieve this attack around 40-45% hashrate as well (however lower the attackers percentage is, lower the chance of succesfully executing the attack)
an example of suspicious activity on monacoin chain: https://imgur.com/a/OeUwU3I
https://twitter.com/tcejorpniocanom/status/997147764294270982
https://twitter.com/tcejorpniocanom/status/997141459777110017
https://www.reddit.com/monacoin/comments/7z6tgt/more_than_51_hash_power_for_unknown_address/
https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=392436.msg37346720#msg37346720
https://headlines.yahoo.co.jp/hl?a=20180518-00000040-zdn_n-sci
https://bitcoin.stackexchange.com/questions/5076/what-stops-miners-nodes-lying-about-what-time-a-block-was-mined?rq=1
Statistic data from Ming:
Traversal of reorg chains data https://pastebin.com/nh57q3k8
Mined blocks that are not in the main chain according to API (hash block_height address value): https://pastebin.com/C92iqmY4
Diagram of chain reorg, now with the replaced chain.
https://gist.github.com/Ming-Tang/7d4d1441b78b551bf752a3ef0a953fbd
PDF version: https://www.dropbox.com/s/stormjg8bcpacg4/reorgs.pdf?dl=0
Suspected attacker: MBTt4Z*********************Wsx

Aftermath:

  1. bittrex employee contacted me, and told me that they consider delisting the coin if they cant contact twitter.com/tcejorpniocanom - i gave them contacts who might know how to contact the developer, and suggested them to do 300 block confirmations
  2. the coins alreday scammed out from the legitimate owners canot be returned - the chain canot be modified backwards
  3. another bitcoin clone called bitcoin gold got hit by a similar attack ( https://forum.bitcoingold.org/t/double-spend-attack-on-exchanges/1362 Details on similar attack for Bitcoin Gold. )
  4. monacoin dev suggest to set confirmation time to 100. no new actions will take place now. enjoy using the coin.
  5. bitbank re-enabled their wallet
  6. bittrex reopened wallet
submitted by GeriGeriGeri to monacoin [link] [comments]

Cereal FAQ

What is Cereal? Cereal is a platform offering credit products that are secured by customer’s mining equipment, cryptocurrencies and other blockchain assets.
How does it work? Thanks to Cereal there is no need for borrowers to sell their valuable blockchain assets in order to access fiat money. Instead they can secure their cryptoassets as collateral in order to receive cash for the purpose of covering their business and living expenses.
Cereal will store its customers’ collateral in cold wallets, thus ensuring a high level of security and preventing bad actors from gaining access to the borrower’s assets.
Cereal has automated solutions for calculating the maximum loan that customers are eligible for, and doesn’t need to check client’s credit scores. This makes Cereal incredibly convenient and hassle-free for borrowers.
What problems do we solve? Credit products have often been a driver of a markets growth. They facilitate faster rates of expansion for businesses which, at scale, contributes to improved standards of living for consumers. In the cryptocurrency market however, credit instruments are almost non-existent. Market participants do not have access to convenient credit solutions which could enhance their business development - this is slowing down the growth of the infrastructure within the industry.
Cereal’s credit solutions solve this problem. The subsequent improvements to the cryptocurrency market infrastructure will increase the pace of development within it, and help it to reach its potential.
Why is your company called Cereal?
Cereals used to be one of the first means of exchange and payment in the ancient world. Today there aren't many effective and legal tools to exchange crypto assets for fiat. We provide this service, and Cereal is a symbol of exchanging opportunities.
What is considered a pledge?
At the beginning of the platform launch such cryptocurrencies as Bitcoin, Ethereum and mining equipment will be accepted as deposit. These assets are highly liquid and have a significant level of trust among the crypto- investors. Among the classical lending services, no deposit asset has such a high liquidity as cryptocurrency. Considering the existing conditions of crypto-market, they cannot be used as money to buy goods and services, but their liquidity is equivalent to fiat. We solve
the problem of access to the fiat, saving the investment position of the cryptoasset.
What currency is used for a loan? Cereal clients can receive a loan in the national currency of their country or in one of the international reserve currencies, if the regulation of that country allows that. For fiat loans, Cereal will cooperate with local financial institutions according to the regional legislation, which will simplify the loan process for Cereal customers and make it quicker and more transparent. Why do we chose gigawatt for partnership?
GigaWatt has a lot of experience in the crypto industry. They are one of the largest mining facilities and provide a wide range of services for miners, including sale of equipment, connection to the finished infrastructure and subsequent maintenance. What advantages does this partnership provide?
This partnership will help those customers who want to get into cryptocurrency mining but don't have sufficient fiat assets to pay for mining equipment. These customers can access loans secured against the mining equipment they purchase, thus reducing the amount of fiat required to get involved. The mining equipment will serve as a collateral and will be located at the GigaWatt hosting facilities, earning money for them throughout the repayment period and beyond. This service is planned to start in July 2018. These outcomes demonstrate that purchasing two miners in installments is much more beneficial. From the first month, investors receive a steady net revenue that is higher than in the case with personal funding. After the loan is repaid by the end of the first year, customers start receiving the full income generated by their mining equipment.
What is a credit card? How does it work?
By choosing a credit card as a product, the client also receives instructions for transferring the deposit to Cereal, and then within a few days can receive the card by courier delivery or at the offices of Cereal partners. The client has the right to freely dispose of credit funds and if needed to withdraw fiat money from the card at ATMs or branches of financial organizations that are Cereal partners. The line of credit by means of credit cards is revolving, which means that the client can operate the loan with minimum monthly payments and reuse the repaid credit limit.
Credit cards also have a preferential interest-free period during which the customer can return
the funds without paying interest. The client can change limits on the credit card by reducing or increasing the amount of cryptocurrency deposit.
The client sees the actual information on the credit limit and the repayment schedule in his/ her personal account. The client can return the deposit if he/she has no debts. After loan repayment, the line of credit on the credit card account is closed, the client can revolve the line of credit after paying in a new deposit.
Why is the need for lines of credit ? Companies that receive income in cryptocurrency can open lines of credit using Cereal to cover transaction costs in fiat. Among the main clients of this service we can name crypto-exchanges, projects that received funding with ICO, miners.
Distinctive features of opening a business line of credit are a large loan amount and a revolving credit line. The company may not immediately use the entire limit, but pay its costs as needed and, in such way, save on interest payments. Loan service terms and information on monthly payments are given in the customer’s personal account.
The business line of credit for allows you to cover expenses that are usually covered in fiat: purchase of mining equipment, staff salaries, business expansion and development.
What are the credit risks and margin-calls?
The main scenario between Cereal and the borrower is loan in fiat on the security of cryptoasset, when the client fully repays his loan in fiat on time, and after that receives his cryptoasset.
The probability of non-repayment loans for Cereal is small, since the deposit is always bigger than the amount of the loan. The loan amount in fiat as a percentage of the deposit depends on the degree of asset liquidity and the volatility of its price.
If the borrower cannot maintain the loan in fiat, Cereal has the right, independently or at the request of the client, to sell part of the deposit at the market price in the equivalent of the customer’s debt for interest payment. If the deposit amount is reduced due to its use for interest payment or because of fall in the market value of the primary asset, the client receives a warning that the deposit amount is insufficient. In this case, the client can:
-Increase deposit to the level required.
-Pay off a part of the debt to comply with the deposit amount or repay the debt in full. -If the first two actions are not possible, sell part of the assets in the equivalent of the remaining debt. How are cryptoassets stored and managed? At the initial stage the cryptocurrencies that are in deposit will be safely stored in Cereal cold wallets and in the case of a margin call will be exchanged for fiat at the partner exchanges.
In the future, we plan to completely eliminate the risks on storing cryptoassets and running transactions with them, by automating the process of storing, returning and selling deposit assets with the help of smart contracts. At present, this is impossible due to the lack of necessary technical solutions, in particular, oracles for updating the state of smart contracts with data from the outside world (for example, integration with internal systems of financial institutions to track the repayment schedule) and decentralized exchange of cryptoassets for fiat or stable cryptocurrencies, easily convertible to fiat. However, we expect that such solutions will appear in the next few years, allowing to store cryptoassets and operate with them completely decentralized and safe.
submitted by Cerealfinance to u/Cerealfinance [link] [comments]

How to attack the Ethereum network using a malicious ICO | A malicious smart contract could congest the network to unusable levels for upwards of seven days.

Hello, everyone! Sorry for the long post, but I think you will all enjoy it and hopefully learn somethings along the way. Here's an image of my Excel calculation results and here's an example contract with another set of numbers. Both files will be helpful later on (you'll see) but aren't necessary to understand this post. TL;DR: An attacker or competing chain could disrupt Ethereum for significant periods by taking advantage of miner's greed, and the best way to prevent it is to reenable dynamic gas limits.
Intro
With the recent congestion issues on the Ethereum network, it has become obvious that there is a serious issue with the current gas payment structure. Not only does the issue pose serious questions about the scalability of Ethereum, it also opens the network up to attacks. I’ll show how a relatively small sum of Ether can be enough to kickstart a miner-enabled DDoS attack. But first we have to understand the problem, and to do that we have to realize where it came from.
Origin of the Problem
Gas, for those that are unfamiliar with the inner workings of Ethereum, is a unit of computation power used to measure the processing requirements of a transaction. A block’s gas limit is the max amount of processing that needs to be done to complete all transactions in the block. Normally, the gas limit would rise and fall with the needs of the network, allowing blocks to expand as the transaction volume increased.
When users need to get their transactions into a block faster, they set a higher gas price. The gas price is the ratio of gas used to the amount of ether paid to the miner as a processing fee (to account for fluctuating values of Ether). Miners ideally try to include as many transactions in a block as they can and prioritize the transactions with the highest gas prices in order to collect as many fees as possible per block. This is where the system breaks.
Some time ago, there was an attack on the Ethereum network involving contracts that would use all the gas in a block on processes that had extremely slow execution speeds, resulting in long block verification times. In order to combat these contracts, miners collectively lowered the gas limits of each block. The default gas limit on new releases of mining software became a fixed value, so the network no longer expanded blocks as they became more filled. The decision reduced the effects of the malicious contracts, but created the situation we are in today.
Recent Developments
Recent ICOs (Initial Coin Offerings, like when a stock goes public but for cryptocurrencies) required that entrants purchase the coins within a certain window of time. This created a race condition: Only transactions processed in that window would be valid purchases, regardless of when they were first sent to a miner for processing. The constant gas limit imposed by the miners meant that there were a limited amount of transactions that could make it into the window. So, entrants increased the gas price of their transactions so they would be processed before the rest. As more people tried to send transactions, the necessary gas price to stay in the window began to skyrocket. Some people paid thousands of dollars in transaction fees to be included in the ICO. If their transactions were too late, they simply wasted their money. The problem wasn’t confined to just the ICO, either.
Since everyone was paying extra to get into the ICO, regular transactions were postponed until they were the most profitable. This meant that any smart contract actions not related to the ICO were put on hold until the congestion cleared, which effectively froze the smart contracts for the duration of the ICO.
While a smart contract delay of several minutes might be inconsequential, a similar network disruption for an entire day (or several) would cripple any business that relied on Ethereum smart contracts for its daily activities (such as with ERP or logistics applications). This has huge implications for the future of Ethereum, since businesses will look to more reliable blockchains or switch to their own, off-chain solution if Ethereum can’t scale to their needs.
Creating Problems to Highlight Problems
Anyone that thinks that these conditions are a fluke is mistaken. The situation has been manipulated by the miners to profit off the limited transaction volume and increased gas prices. You see, it's actually profitable for miners to create these situations: if everyone could fit into the window, they would not need to pay exorbitant gas prices. The longer they keep the gas limits down, the more people are willing to pay to get into these ICO’s. It’s not just enough to change the way we do ICOs: We have to change the conditions that led to this current situation. Until then, an attacker can abuse the current conditions to destroy Ethereum from within. And here’s how:
Creating Our Attack Contract
(Here's where that example contract will be handy) To create our attack, we first start with a simple derivative coin sale contract. We’ll call these DDoS Coins, or DCoins. At the end of the sale, all the DCoins will be converted back into Ether at the rate TotalEtherCollected/TotalCoinsMade.
1) We seed the contract with a starting amount of Ether. This amount will determine the price of entry per generation (higher seed amount means higher prices and incentive to enter).
2) We require that only transactions with less than a certain gas price are allowed to purchase coins, preventing people from spending more gas to get into the sale early.
3) We create a set of ‘generations’ with varying conditions on the sale, where the current generation is determined by the total number of successful purchases. The earlier generations have more favorable terms than later generations.
4) We also require that each transaction in a generation receives the same amount of DCoins regardless of how much Ether is sent with it (as long as it is above the generation’s price).
5) In order to incentivize miners to process the transactions, a percentage of the total Ether in the transaction goes to the block’s coinbase (the miner that mined the block).
6) After a requisite number of generations or blocks have passed, the DCoins can be redeemed.
What the Attack Does
First, the seed Ether creates an incentive to buy DCoins. Since each coin is worth (SumOfPayments+SeedEther)/(NumberOfCoins), it will always be profitable to enter into the contract (though this doesn't have to be the case). Because the early generations have more favorable conditions, it will be most profitable to enter the contract earlier. We limited the gasprice, so the only way to incentivize a miner to process a transaction earlier than any other is to include a higher amount of Ether in the purchase transaction (and therefore send a higher amount to the miner when their percentage is taken out). Additional Ether over the generation’s price that is not sent to the miners is stored in the contract, increasing the value of the contract (and subsequent coins). As the generations pass, the contract stores more and more Ether, becoming profitable to enter even in the later generations.
Since it’s at least profitable to enter the contract, it can be expected that all DCoins will be purchased as they become available. The point of the contract is now to get as many transactions in as early as possible. This creates the same race condition as the ICO mentioned before, and results in the network becoming increasingly congested as more transactions try to be included in the latest block. With enough seed Ether, it is possible to run iterations on this contract indefinitely and effectively DoS the network. How much seed Ether would be enough? According to initial calculations (see spreadsheet results), it would only take around $1M in seed Ether to create enough demand to fill every block on the Ethereum network (at current limits) for two whole days. Which means that it would only cost $3.5M to congest the network to unusable levels for an entire week. To put that in perspective, Poloniex has daily transaction volumes of over $25M in Ether alone, and nearly twice that in Bitcoin. The flash crash shows that there are individuals out there with this level of funding. The capabilities are there, and it is only a matter of time before a someone implements this contract on Ethereum to drive the value of the network into the ground. And this is with a basic smart contract that was coded in a day, not a sophisticated or mathematically optimal exploit.
Conclusion
So, what is the solution to the problem? Simple: Miners just need to dynamically increase block gas limits again. Easier said than done, unfortunately. There are enough reasons for miners to keep the limits low that we may never see 100% consensus on an improved algorithm without another fork. Other methods are likely in the works, but until there is a concrete change, the Ethereum network will continue to be vulnerable to attacks like this thanks to the greed of its own miners.
submitted by lordofthemists to ethtrader [link] [comments]

How to make your first investment in SPDR and generate revenue with masternodes and other amazing news

How to make your first investment in SPDR and generate revenue with masternodes and other amazing news
Welcome to the weekly blog section of the SPIDER VPS team, blog section where we will talk about the development of our platform. For us, it is very important to have a space dedicated to the weekly updates of our project, as we demonstrate that our commitment and our effort is real and that we want to deliver a project 100% dedicated to our community.
For this day’s section, we will talk about how you, as a young investor, will be able to invest directly in our currency and generate income with our masternodes system.We would also like to show the progression of our marketing campaign,new services and partnerships are being added everyday in order for spider coin to “reach out every corner”.We seek to be the best project of the moment. You are welcome to join us and find out how our project is right now, its development and movement in the community,which is the most important thing because we can do any kind of positive development but if we do not have the support of our community and investors we can not move forward so all our progress we owe to you , our faithful and big family.

First investments in SPDR

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First we’ll talk about why it’s a good option for you to invest in our project. We are currently among the 20 best masternode coins of the moment as we have a current volume of 24 hours of more than 23.70 BTC. Also in such a short time we were listed in coinmarketcap. This is a great joy for us because many know that being on the list in such a short time in coinmarketcap is a challenge that only a few can achieve. To list a project on CMC they must have a very good volume of trade because CMC does a very deep study to know if a currency can be listed with them and they listed SPDR almost immediately showing that it is a project worth believing in and investing in. This makes us understand that we have a growing community that believes in us and fully trusts that we are a project with a very strong base. With such a large percentage of currencies closed, we have a very good decrease in ROI that will give more price and stability to our currency, in just fifteen days we saw how the price of our currency doubled compared to its value, which is amazing. I will show it in the following graph, because the young investors to whom this post is addressed need to know why it is a good idea to invest in us and what are the great advantages of doing so… We know we still have a long way to go, but we work day by day constantly refining our platform and telling only the truth to our community.

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SPDR has been a very innovative concept because you can acquire it thanks to its hybrid algo that has mining POW and POS staking/masternode system which means that investors can choose either to mine their coins with their Gpu’s or stake them/run masternodes by themselves or by using our trusted partners that offer shared masternode services and earn a passive income from a coin in constant growth..
As a second point we will talk about how these shared masternodes work because they are the most used at moment.You do not need to have all the collateral to acquire rewards because you can invest in what you want and buy a seat available to duplicate those coins to get to have your own node in this way but this is what we will talk about. Then, as I said, let’s talk about the fact that SPDR was able to list in an exchange very early on, which is also amazing since part of the pre-sale was done in CREX24. Our team was very assertive in listing with this great exchange because it is very respectable nowadays, it has a daily volume of 192 BTC and by the way our currency is in the number one position, after a while we decided that it was time to expand and we needed another exchange so we chose CryptoBridge which has a current volume of 52 BTC and has earned the affection of many for its great system together with the chain of blocks of Bitshares ,our coin here is ranked in the top 10.

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CREX24

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CryptoBridge

About our shared, instant masternodes partners


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Every day more and more partners join our project so this time we will talk about all the shared masternode services which have brought many benefits to the projects because they do something that is a true for many masternode investors which is that not many of them know the technical parts of how to host a masternode, and with those platforms they can do it for a percentage cost of their hosted currencies or simply because they are investors who want to expand their portfolio and want to invest in many currencies. Many of this services(if they agree with the coin teams) run instant nodes.What is an istant node? Basically it is a masternode running in the background which gives instant rewards to all members that join a shared pool. If there are for example 3500 coins in the pool but no istant node running then all users will get staking rewards only. If there is an instant node running than all users will get 50% of masternode rewards shared between them.

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service offers an instant shared masternodes for SPDR.
Check out ultimate features:
• 0-click-masternode-launch (tm)
• full automation
• instant masternode join
• instant rewards
• instant withdrawal
• no deposit or withdrawal fee
• instant auto-reinvest
• no minimum deposit / masternode join amount
• super-clean and intuitive interface
• referral system
Join the shared masternode in 2 clicks:
Click 1 — Login with your social network account: Facebook, Twitter, Google supported (don’t forget to confirm your email).
Click 2 — Deposit your SPDR coins.
You will start to receive rewards instantly!
Visit https://stackofstake.com/ and explore the ultimate masternode experience!
Got questions or suggestions? Join our official Discord server Need support? Feel free to report any issues to [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected]).


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Established in January 2018 and offering the largest community in the masternode space, Midas are a highly trusted and reputable investments platform, and through this listing SPDR endorse their service.
Invest through the Midas Investment Platform — https://p.midas.investments/
  1. Earn rewards instantly using the SPDR instant share held at the Midas platform.
  2. Manage your investments on the Midas platform, providing regular and consistent payouts.
  3. Instant and automated deposits and withdrawals, giving you full control over your investments.
  4. Industry low fees, offering a three tiered fee structure to ensure fees stay low. Pay in MIDAS for the lowest fees.
  5. Scaled reinvestment. Reinvest 100% for compound interest, or set a full/partial automated withdrawal to your wallet.
Midas become the first to offer a complete investment ecosystem
Investors with Midas gain the unique ability to utilize a combination of platforms to research, trade and invest your favourite projects.
Research — Follow the latest updates from your favourite projects with content published directly on https://mn.investments/ from the teams themselves.
Trade — Have you found the investment you want to make. Trade directly on Midex, the exchange operated by Midas — https://dex.midas.investments/
Invest — Invest your coins on the Midas platform https://p.midas.investments/, the intuitive and easy-to-manage platform offered by Midas.
In this great platform there are so far 9 masternodes installed
We hope to integrate SPDR to other Midas platforms very soon!
Discord


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All the SPIDER investors have now 2 weeks with no fees at the trttNodes platform
What does the service offer:
INVESTMENT IN MASTERNODE POOLS
- Investments with no limitations or barriers — starting from 10 EUR minimum value and no cap on maximum investment.
- Investment pools — no shares, seats or dedicated masternodes, your investment will be treated as one position and always get it’s fair rewards.
- Instant rewards — no waiting for the first rewards or masternode filling, get paid 4 times a day, on every 6 hours
- Instant withdrawals — no coins locked for days and waiting for replacement.
- Compound interest by Reinvesting — enable “Re-invest” feature and get the accumulated rewards automatically added to your investment.
- Flexible management — you can add more coins to running investment or withdraw from it any amount, whenever you wish.
- Low fees — 5 EUmonth flat fee per masternode and 4% on rewards for the amounts less that full MN.
- Fees paid in TRTT — your coins won’t be sold on the market and drive the price down.
- Team dedicated to investors
COLD WALLET MASTERNODE HOSTING
- No tech Knowledge needed
- 3-clicks setup
- Special launch offer — only 0.49€/Month
- Fees charged daily in TRTT
- 24/7 service
* Special offer will be valid as long as we continue in beta phase
Guides
How to invest with trttNodes (new UI)
Cold Nodes setup at trttNodes (new UI)
Discord


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Discord

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About Snode:
What Snode offers:
  1. HQ Services: Shared/instant/dedicated/trustless hosting
  2. Security: Secured platform and users are protected by 2FA for every task
  3. User-friendly dashboard https://dashboard.snode.co/masternodes/reservation
  4. Low fee, no deposit no withdraw free, 20% referral bonus
  5. Transparency: Investors can track information of all running MNs https://dashboard.snode.co/masternodes/running
  6. Instant payout: The rewards are released as soon as they are spendable.
  7. Auto Reinvestment with our Web Wallet
  8. Ticket system: We provide instant support 24/7 via ticket system
  9. SND Payment: You can choose to pay the fee in SND instead of your invested coins
On this platform there are currently 5 masternodes running
Join now MN
Snode discord

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With help of this service you can deploy Spider Masternodes
for only $3.90 per month without any technical knowledge.
On this platform there are currently 1 masternodes running
Website


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FlitsNode Mobile Masternode Service
  • We are glad to announce that FlitsNode has listed us on their mobile app.
  • NOW you can host your masternodes at FlitsNode mobile app for only $3.49/Month if paid in FLS or $5.99/Month if paid in another currency!
What benefits does FlitsNode offer:
  1. No coding needed
  2. Start a masternode with just a few clicks
  3. Super fast and convenient
  4. Mobile Staking enabled
  5. Deposit and Invest Bitcoin
  6. Buy/Sell coins right from the mobile(in upcoming versions)
  7. 10% monthly discount for 10+ nodes
  8. Fees charged daily.
30 days free trial from the registration dateFor further inquiries, please visit FlitsNode
Discord

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one-click masternode platform — GIN Platform
What is the GIN Platform?
The GIN Platform is a web application that allows you to create cold wallet masternodes for Spider coin, without having to deal with servers, terminals or Linux. This lowers the entry barrier to the masternodes market for non-technical people.
How does it work?
The platform automatically creates and configures the server for you in the background. At certain points you are asked for input that links your wallet to the server.


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OS/MN Service “Spider Coin” INSTANT NODES & SHARED NODES & DEDICATED NODES!
What makes SPP different?
https://blog.simplepospool.com/what-makes-simple-pos-pool-different/
  • No minimum deposit
  • Host over 2300 mns
  • Daily Payouts all day long
  • Some payments are almost instant
  • Follow the stakes and rewards in real time
  • User Dashboard to follow all your investment growth
  • 3% Commission for POS and 5% for masternode
  • Instant masternodes
  • Shared masternodes
  • Dedicated masternodes
  • You earn always. Even if the masternode is on pending status, you receive stakes
  • Probably the only pool that pay staking and masternode interest
  • You can follow all activity by watching the addresses they give you
  • Secure Logins
  • 4 tier Referral Program
Discord
Web
Blog
Twitter

SHM Masternodes discord

SHARED MASTERNODE HAS ADDED SPIDER COIN TO THE SERVICE !!!
PAYMENT : EVERY 1 DAYS
MINIMAL DEPOSIT: 350 SPDR ( MN 7000)
Discord
Twitter
Telegram

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Your reliable partner for Shared Masternode & PoS services!
general info about:
  • 30k active Community
  • no minimum deposit
Website
(1 click hosting) Clicknode
Coin Website
Discord
Twitter
Instagram
Facebook

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Shared Masternode & MN Statistics
About Our services :
MDC-Hash offers various services such as MN statistic, staking pool, shared masternode, price updates on coins and lot’s more to come.
About safety :
We use a cold wallet system, all encrypted and secured using the latest technology to ensure our clients assets are never compromised.
About fees and other things.
  1. Our services funded 100% by fiat. So we have lowest fees, Fee for shared MN(and pool) 2% fee on rewards
  2. Instant MN for each coin listed that already has a MN running
  3. All rewards are reinvested automatically
PS : we do not build coins. We only provide info, statistics and pools
Website
Discord

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What do have we for you?
MASTERNODE POOLS
  • Minimum Deposit of 1 Coin!
  • Instantaneous Reinvestments
  • Superior User Dashboards
  • Secure Logins
  • Instant Earnings Accrual
  • Referral Program
  • Earn More!
  • Automated Masternode Deployment
  • 4% Commission (No Hidden Fees)
Discord
Website Platform

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We are Hosting and Shared MN service mn.gtmcoin.io.
  • 11k+ hosting Mns ( biggest platform in the world )
  • $0.11 daily fee for hosting
  • INSTANT MNs ( you get immediately rewards in shared MNs)
  • REINVEST option (DOUBLE YOUR REWARDS)
  • No deposit or withdrawal fee
  • Only 2% fee in shared MN
  • More than 150 MN coins in automated shared MN
  • Friendly community
  • Full node host, you can send coins to shared MN or host your own
Discord
Platform

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This is great news that we have in mind and that will be a great boom! not everything is Proof of Stake we also have great news for our investors who work at Proof of Work! We want to announce our great partnership with the AIOMiner platform which we are hoping that in a few days this will become official we have already established with them our enlistment, we also want to work day by day for our miners POW! but for those people who do not know AIOMiner what this is all about? mining software in one GPU for Windows in which you can control your mining from anywhere that is automatically synchronized that generates the best return using WhatToMine.com and make this more profitable for you. They also have a system that we all know that in mining there are times of day that are usually more expensive so it will be configured depends on performance to offer you a better return but the best of all this is that AIOMiner does not charge any commission because each currency is yours but the best of all is that you have a service 24 hours a day support so you do not lose time and generate more revenue because time is money.

WhatToMine has added SPDR to its list Crypto coins mining profit calculator


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For us it is a pride to be listed on this great page because for a long time it has been the excellence for the POW miners that day by day use it to calculate which is the best option of profitability to be able to obtain a better profit of quality coins, what do I mean by this? WhatToMine does an extensive study to determine if a coin is applicable to your platform and for the joy of us we have passed this test and we are in, already for our POW miners may know that they will have the option to draw their own conclusions if mining our coin is good and also this will attract new miners to our network which is something amazing that our family grows so if you are a POW miner please run and do the review and calculate that our coin is your best option. The amazing thing about this page is that it is very accurate and calculates every detail that is presented in a POW mining from the FEES to the cost of energy something very excellent.
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This is the publication for this week, we know that it is a little long but when you do real work and strive to bring the best to your community great things have to be announced and there are many more that will add up day by day! With this, those young investors who want to start investing in our project but were not sure or did not know how to do it we hope that this article has cleared their views about the trasparency and hard work that is being put in our project. Again we welcome you to join our big family and invest in a coin with great capabilities.Thank you for reading!
This is the publication for this week, we know that it is a little long but when you do real work and strive to bring the best to your community great things have to be announced and there are many more that will add up day by day! With this, those young investors who want to start investing in our project but were not sure or did not know how to do it we hope that this article has cleared their views about the trasparency and hard work that is being put in our project. Again we welcome you to join our big family and invest in a coin with great capabilities.Thank you for reading!

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Crypto trade calculator Calculating percentages - second tutorial Bitcoin profit mining calculator - YouTube HOW TO USE TBC CURRENCY CALCULATOR WITH NEW WALLETS How To Calculate Mining Profit: The Easy COMPLETE Guide ...

By comparing the break-even prices of miners across the lower quartile, we can see at what prices older miners will no longer be profitable. In order to compare break-even prices, we have to take the current difficulty and price into consideration. In the graph below, we suppose Bitcoin is at a price of $7,000 with the current difficulty. Some of the miners are even able to receive special industrial rates for this. Due to the costs and logistical issues with ASIC mining, it inevitably leads to powerful mining farms taking over huge percentages of the hash rate. Bitcoin needs decentralization of mining to prevent a 51% attack on the network. How To Calculate Pips For Bitcoin. ... This means losses hurt more than wins of the same size. This becomes even worse with larger percentages. If you lose 50% of your budget, you must double your money to make up for the loss. ... Google May Block Cryptocurrency Miners inChrome Mining for cryptocurrency in web browsers is not a new thing, but ... You've heard of Bitcoin and you're ready to get your hands on some digital wealth. However, this may be easier said than done. When you "mine" Bitcoin, you actually verify Bitcoin transactions in the public, decentralized ledger of Bitcoin transactions (called the blockchain).Every time you find a new block to add to the chain, the system gives you some Bitcoin as a reward. Cost Per Bitcoin. Since each block currently yields 12.5 btc we can divide that total energy cost by the reward yield and assign a minimum value to each newly created Bitcoin: $3,324.36. Quite a difference from the sale price of $8,744.00! Intrinsic Value of Bitcoin

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Crypto trade calculator

https://bitly.su/HYAb Interest is paid to your account balance each hour 7 days a week. You can either reinvest from your available balance to increase your ... In this video I will go over how to use a Bitcoin profit calculator and show you just how much money can be made Bitcoin mining using antminer s7 or s9. Crypto Clothing and Gear https ... If you're looking into starting cryptocurrency mining, you want to make sure that you're making a good profit on your main computer or GPU (graphics card)/CP... Bitcoin Trading for Beginners (A Guide in Plain English) ... Calculate Percentages In Your Head - Duration: 5:58. MindYourDecisions 178,937 views. 5:58. Math Calculations & Conversions : ... What Do Bitcoin Miners Calculate

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