If you carry an apple device, Apple knows where you are. Using the lever of "You have a choice, but unless you say yes, your old activities will stop working" is something that Apple has done before, with malicious "upgrades". Apple ostensibly doesn't force people to accept the new nasty thing; it just punishes them if they don't.
Apple can track iMonsters even when they are suspended. See https://www.macrumors.com/2019/06/03/apples-new-find-my-app/ This distributed bluetooth network is said to be "secure", but it is obviously not secure from Apple or from governments that can command Apple's obedience (such as the US and China).
Apple iThings pioneered a new level of restricting the users: they were the first general purpose computers to impose censorship over what programs the user can install. Apple practices Digital Restrictions Management in many other ways too. See http://rotten-apple.org/
The date was June 10, 2018. The sun was shining, the grass was growing, and the birds were singing. At least, that’s what I assumed. Being a video game and tech obsessed teenager, I was indoors, my eyes glued to my computer monitor like a starving lion spying on a plump gazelle. I was watching the E3 (Electronic Entertainment Expo) 2018 broadcast on twitch.com, a popular streaming website. Video game developers use E3 as an annual opportunity to showcase any upcoming video game projects to the public. So far, the turnout had been disappointing. Much to my disappointment, multiple game developers failed to unveil anything of actual sustenance for an entire two hours. A graphical update here, a bug fix there. Issues that should have been fixed at every game’s initial launch, not a few months after release. Feeling hopeless, I averted my eyes from my computer monitor to check Reddit (a social media app/website) if there were any forum posts that I had yet to see. But then, I heard it. The sound of music composer Mick Gordon’s take on the original “DooM” theme, the awesome combination of metal and electronic music. I looked up at my screen and gasped. Bethesda Softworks and id software had just announced “DOOM: Eternal”, the fifth addition in the “DooM” video game series. “DOOM: Eternal” creative director Hugo Martin promised that the game would feel more powerful than it’s 2016 predecessor, there would be twice as many enemy types, and the doom community would finally get to see “hell on earth”. (Martin) As a fan of “DOOM (2016)”, I was ecstatic. The original “DooM” popularized the “First Person Shooter (FPS)” genre, and I wished I wouldn’t have to wait to experience the most recent entry in the series. “DOOM(1993)” was a graphical landmark when it originally released, yet nowadays it looks extremely dated, especially compared to “DOOM: Eternal”. What advancements in computer technology perpetuated this graphical change? Computers became faster, digital storage increased, and computer peripherals were able to display higher resolution and refresh rates. “DooM” 1993 graphics example: 📷(Doom | Doom Wiki) “DOOM: Eternal” graphics example: 📷 (Bailey) In their video “Evolution Of DOOM”, the video game YouTube Channel “gameranx” says that on December 10, 1993, a file titled “DOOM1_0.zip” was uploaded on the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) server of the University of Wisconsin. This file, two megabytes in size, contained the video game “DooM” created by the game development group “id Software”. (Evolution of DOOM) While not the first game in the “First Person Shooter” (FPS) genre, “DooM” popularized the genre, to the point of any other FPS game being referred to as a “Doom Clone” until the late 1990s. (Doom clones | Doom Wiki) The graphics of the original “DooM” is definitely a major downgrade compared to today’s graphical standards, but keep in mind that the minimum system requirements of “DooM”, according to the article “Doom System Requirements” on gamesystemrequirements.com, was eight megabytes of ram, an Intel Pentium or AMD (Advanced Micro Devices) Athlon 486 processor cycling at sixty-six megahertz or more, and an operating system that was Windows 95 or above. (Doom System Requirements) In case you don’t speak the language of technology (although I hope you learn a thing or two at the end of this essay), the speed and storage capacity is laughable compared to the specifications of today. By 1993, the microprocessor, or CPU (Central Processing Unit) had been active for the past twenty-two years after replacing the integrated circuit in 1971, thanks to the creators of the microprocessor, Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore who were also the founder of CPU manufacturer “Intel”. Gordon Moore also created “Moore’s law”, which states “The number of transistors incorporated in a chip will approximately double every 24 months”. (Moore) Sadly, according to writer and computer builder Steve Blank in his article “The End of More - The Death of Moore’s Law”, this law would end at around 2005, thanks to the basic laws of physics. (Blank) 1993 also marked an important landmark for Intel, who just released the first “Pentium” processor which was capable of a base clock of 60 MHz (megahertz). The term “base clock” refers to the default speed of a CPU. This speed can be adjusted via the user’s specifications, and “MHz” refers to one million cycles per second. A cycle is essentially one or more problems that the computer solves. The more cycles the CPU is running at, the more problems get solved. Intel would continue upgrading their “Pentium” lineup until January 4, 2000 when they would release the “Celeron” processor, with a base clock of 533 MHz. Soon after, on June 19, 2000, rival CPU company AMD would release their “Duron” processor which had a base clock of 600 MHz, with a maximum clock of 1.8 GHz (Gigahertz). One GHz is equal to 1,000 MHz. Intel and AMD had established themselves as the two major CPU companies in the 1970s in Silicon Valley. Both companies had been bitter rivals since then, trading figurative blows in the form of competitive releases, discounts, and “one upmanship” to this day. Moving on to April 21, 2005 when AMD released the first dual-core CPU, the “Athlon 64 X2 3800+”. The notable feature of this CPU, besides a 2.0 GHz base clock and a 3.8 maximum clock, was that it was the first CPU to have two cores. A CPU core is a CPU’s processor. The more cores a CPU has, the more tasks it can perform per cycle, thus maximizing it’s efficiency. Intel wouldn’t respond until January 9, 2006, when they released their dual-core processor, the “Core 2 Duo Processor E6320”, with a base clock of 1.86 GHz. (Computer Processor History) According to tech entrepreneur Linus Sebastian in his YouTube videos “10 Years of Gaming PCs: 2009 - 2014 (Part 1)” and “10 Years of Gaming PCs: 2015 - 2019 (Part 2)”, AMD would have the upper hand over Intel until 2011, when Intel released the “Sandy Bridge” CPU microarchitecture, which was faster and around the same price as AMD’s current competing products. (Sebastian) The article “What is Microarchitecture?” on the website Computer Hope defines microarchitecture as “a hardware implementation of an ISA (instruction set architecture). An ISA is a structure of commands and operations used by software to communicate with hardware. A microarchitecture is the hardware circuitry that implements one particular ISA”. (What is Microarchitecture?) Microarchitecture is also referred to as what generation a CPU belongs to. Intel would continue to dominate the high-end CPU market until 2019, when AMD would “dethrone” Intel with their third generation “Ryzen” CPU lineup. The most notable of which being the “Ryzen 3950x”, which had a total of sixteen cores, thirty-two threads, a base clock of 3.5 GHz, and a maximum clock of 4.7 GHz. (Sebastian) The term “thread” refers to splitting one core into virtual cores, via a process known as “simultaneous multithreading”. Simultaneous multithreading allows one core to perform two tasks at once. What CPU your computer has is extremely influential for how fast your computer can run, but for video games and other types of graphics, there is a special type of processor that is designed specifically for the task of “rendering” (displaying) and generating graphics. This processor unit is known as the graphics processing unit, or “GPU”. The term “GPU” wasn’t used until around 1999, when video cards started to evolve beyond the literal generation of two-dimensional graphics and into the generation of three-dimensional graphics. According to user “Olena” in their article “A Brief History of GPU”, The first GPU was the “GeForce 256”, created by GPU company “Nvidia'' in 1999. Nvidia promoted the GeForce 256 as “A single-chip processor with integrated transform, lighting, triangle setup/clipping, and rendering engines that is capable of processing a minimum of 10 million polygons per second”. (Olena) Unlike the evolution of CPUs, the history of GPUs is more one sided, with AMD playing a game of “catchup” ever since Nvidia overtook AMD in the high-end GPU market in 2013. (Sebastian) Fun fact, GPUs aren’t used only for gaming! In 2010, Nvidia collaborated with Audi to power the dashboards and increase the entertainment and navigation systems in Audi’s cars! (Olena) Much to my (and many other tech enthusiasts), GPUs would increase dramatically in price thanks to the “bitcoin mania” around 2017. This was, according to senior editor Tom Warren in his article “Bitcoin Mania is Hurting PC Gamers By Pushing Up GPU Prices'' on theverge.com, around an 80% increase in price for the same GPU due to stock shortages. (Warren) Just for context, Nvidia’s “flagship” gpu in 2017 was the 1080ti, the finest card of the “pascal” microarchitecture. Fun fact, I have this card. The 1080ti launched for $699, with the specifications of a base clock of 1,481 MHz, a maximum clock of 1,582 MHz, and 11 gigabytes of GDDR5X Vram (Memory that is exclusive to the GPU) according to the box it came in. Compare this to Nvidia’s most recent flagship GPU, the 2080ti of Nvidia’s followup “Turing” microarchitecture, another card I have. This GPU launched in 2019 for $1,199. The 2080ti’s specifications, according to the box it came in included a base clock of 1,350 MHz, a maximum clock of 1,545 MHz, and 11 gigabytes of GDDR6 Vram. A major reason why “DooM” was so popular and genius was how id software developer John Carmack managed to “fake” the three-dimensional graphics without taking up too much processing power, hard drive space, or “RAM” (Random access memory), a specific type of digital storage. According to the article “RAM (Random Access Memory) Definition” on the website TechTerms, Ram is also known as “volatile” memory, because it is much faster than normal storage (which at the time took the form of hard-drive space), and unlike normal storage, only holds data when the computer is turned on. A commonly used analogy is that Ram is the computer’s short-term memory, storing temporary files to be used by programs, while hard-drive storage is the computer’s long term memory. (RAM (Random Access Memory) Definition) As I stated earlier, in 1993, “DooM” required 8 megabytes of ram to run. For some context, as of 2020, “DOOM: Eternal” requires a minimum of 8 gigabytes of DDR4 (more on this later) ram to run, with most gaming machines possessing 16 gigabytes of DDR4 ram. According to tech journalist Scott Thornton in his article “What is DDR (Double Data Rate) Memory and SDRAM Memory”, in 1993, the popular format of ram was “SDRAM”. “SDRAM” stands for “Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory”. SDRAM differs from its predecessor, “DRAM” (Dynamic Random Access Memory) by being synchronized with the clock speed of the CPU. DRAM was asynchronous (not synchronized by any external influence), which “posted a problem in organizing data as it comes in so it can be queued for the process it’s associated with”. SDRAM was able to transfer data one time per clock cycle, and it’s replacement in the early 2000s, “DDR SDRAM” (Dual Data Rate Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory) was able to transfer data two times per clock cycle. This evolution of ram would continue to this day. In 2003, DDR2 SDRAM was released, able to transfer four pieces of data per clock cycle. In 2007, DDR3 SDRAM was able to transfer eight pieces of data per clock cycle. In 2014, DDR4 SDRAM still was able to transfer eight pieces of data per cycle, but the clock speed had increased by 600 MHz, and the overall power consumption had been reduced from 3.3 volts for the original SDRAM to 1.2 volts for DDR4. (Thornton)The digital size of each “ram stick” (a physical stick of ram that you would insert into your computer) had also increased, from around two megabytes per stick, to up to 128 gigabytes per stick (although this particular option will cost you around $1,000 per stick depending on the manufacturer) in 2020, although the average stick size is 8 gigabytes. For the average computer nowadays, you can insert up to four ram sticks, although for more high-end systems, you can insert up to sixteen or even thirty-two! Rewind back to 1993, where the original “DooM” took up two megabytes of storage, not to be confused with ram. According to tech enthusiast Rex Farrance in their article “Timeline: 50 Years of Hard Drives”, the average computer at this time had around two gigabytes of storage. Storage took the form of magnetic-optical discs, a combination of the previous magnetic discs and optical discs. (Farrance) This format of storage is still in use today, although mainly for large amounts of rarely used data, while data that is commonly used by programs (including the operating system) is put on solid-state drives, or SSDs. According to tech journalist Keith Foote in their article “A Brief History of Data Storage”, SSDs differed from the HDD by being much faster and smaller, storing data on a flash memory chip, not unlike a USB thumb drive. While SSDs had been used as far back as 1950, they wouldn’t find their way into the average gaming machine until the early 2010s. (Foote) A way to think about SSDs is common knowledge. It doesn’t contain every piece of information you know, it just contains what you use on a daily basis. For example, my computer has around 750 gigabytes of storage in SSDs, and around two terabytes of internal HDD storage. On my SSDs, I have my operating system, my favorite programs and games, and any files that I use frequently. On my HDD, I have everything else that I don’t use on a regular basis. “DOOM: Eternal” would release on March 20, 2020, four months after it’s original release date on November 22, 2019. And let me tell you, I was excited. The second my clock turned from 11:59 P.M. to 12:00 A.M., I repeatedly clicked my refresh button, desperately waiting to see the words “Coming March 20” transform into the ever so beautiful and elegant phrase: “Download Now”. At this point in time, I had a monitor that was capable of displaying roughly two-million pixels spread out over it’s 27 inch display panel, at a rate of 240 times a second. Speaking of monitors and displays, according to the article “The Evolution of the Monitor” on the website PCR, at the time of the original “DooM” release, the average monitor was either a CRT (cathode ray tube) monitor, or the newer (and more expensive) LCD (liquid crystal display) monitor. The CRT monitor was first unveiled in 1897 by the German physicist Karl Ferdinand Braun. CRT monitors functioned by colored cathode ray tubes generating an image on a phosphorescent screen. These monitors would have an average resolution of 800 by 600 pixels and a refresh rate of around 30 frames per second. CRT monitors would eventually be replaced by LCD monitors in the late 2000s. LCD monitors functioned by using two pieces of polarized glass with liquid crystal between them. A backlight would shine through the first piece of polarized glass (also known as substrate). Electrical currents would then cause the liquid crystals to adjust how much light passes through to the second substrate, which creates the images that are displayed. (The Evolution of the Monitor) The average resolution would increase to 1920x1080 pixels and the refresh rate would increase to 60 frames a second around 2010. Nowadays, there are high end monitors that are capable of displaying up to 7,680 by 4,320 pixels, and also monitors that are capable of displaying up to 360 frames per second, assuming you have around $1,000 lying around. At long last, it had finished. My 40.02 gigabyte download of “DOOM: Eternal” had finally completed, and oh boy, I was ready to experience this. I ran over to my computer, my beautiful creation sporting 32 gigs of DDR4 ram, an AMD Ryzen 7 “3800x” with a base clock of 3.8 GHz, an Nvidia 2080ti, 750 gigabytes of SSD storage and two terabytes of HDD storage. Finally, after two years of waiting for this, I grabbed my mouse, and moved my cursor over that gorgeous button titled “Launch DOOM: Eternal”. Thanks to multiple advancements in the speed of CPUs, the size of ram and storage, and display resolution and refresh rate, “DooM” had evolved from an archaic, pixelated video game in 1993 into the beautiful, realistic and smooth video game it is today. And personally, I can’t wait to see what the future has in store for us.
Imagine if there was one desk that all stories could cross so that, at 4am, a media plan could be decided upon and disseminated where all news outlets coordinated to set the goalposts of debate and hyper focused on specific issues to drive a narrative to control how you vote and how you spend money; where Internet shills were given marching orders in tandem to what was shown on television, printed in newspapers and spread throughout articles on the World Wide Web. https://i.imgur.com/Elnci0M.png In the past, we had Operation Mockingbird, where the program was supremely confident that it could control stories around the world, even in instructions to cover up any story about a possible “Yeti” sighting, should it turn out they were real. https://i.imgur.com/121LXqy.png If, in 1959, the government was confident in its ability to control a story about a Yeti, then what is their level of confidence in controlling stories, today? https://i.imgur.com/jQFVYew.png https://i.imgur.com/ZKMYGJj.png In fact, we have a recent example of a situation similar to the Yeti. When Bill Clinton and Loretta Lynch met on the TARMAC to spike the Hillary email investigation, the FBI was so confident it wasn’t them, that their entire focus was finding the leaker, starting with searching within the local PD. We have documentation that demonstrates the state of mind of the confidence the upper levels of the FBI have when dealing with the media. https://i.imgur.com/IbjDOkI.png https://i.imgur.com/NH86ozU.png The marriage between mainstream media and government is a literal one and this arrangement is perfectly legal. https://i.imgur.com/OAd4vpf.png But, this problem extends far beyond politics; the private sector, the scientific community, even advice forums are shilled heavily. People are paid to cause anxiety, recommend people break up and otherwise sow depression and nervousness. This is due to a correlating force that employs “systems psychodynamics”, focusing on “tension centered” strategies to create “organizational paradoxes” by targeting people’s basic assumptions about the world around them to create division and provide distraction. https://i.imgur.com/6OEWYFN.png https://i.imgur.com/iG4sdD4.png https://i.imgur.com/e89Rx6B.png https://i.imgur.com/uotm9Cg.png https://i.imgur.com/74wt9tD.png In this day and age, it is even easier to manage these concepts and push a controlled narrative from a central figure than it has ever been. Allen & Co is a “boutique investment firm” that managed the merger between Disney and Fox and operates as an overseeing force for nearly all media and Internet shill armies, while having it’s fingers in sports, social media, video games, health insurance, etc. https://i.imgur.com/zlpBh3c.png https://i.imgur.com/e5ZvFFJ.png Former director of the CIA and Paul Brennan’s former superior George Tenet, holds the reigns of Allen & Co. The cast of characters involves a lot of the usual suspects. https://i.imgur.com/3OlrX7G.png
In 1973, Allen & Company bought a stake in Columbia Pictures. When the business was sold in 1982 to Coca-Cola, it netted a significant profit. Since then, Herbert Allen, Jr. has had a place on Coca-Cola's board of directors. Since its founding in 1982, the Allen & Company Sun Valley Conference has regularly drawn high-profile attendees such as Bill Gates, Warren Buffett, Rupert Murdoch, Barry Diller, Michael Eisner, Oprah Winfrey, Robert Johnson, Andy Grove, Richard Parsons, and Donald Keough. Allen & Co. was one of ten underwriters for the Google initial public offering in 2004. In 2007, Allen was sole advisor to Activision in its $18 billion merger with Vivendi Games. In 2011, the New York Mets hired Allen & Co. to sell a minority stake of the team. That deal later fell apart. In November 2013, Allen & Co. was one of seven underwriters on the initial public offering of Twitter. Allen & Co. was the adviser of Facebook in its $19 billion acquisition of WhatsApp in February 2014. In 2015, Allen & Co. was the advisor to Time Warner in its $80 billion 2015 merger with Charter Communications, AOL in its acquisition by Verizon, Centene Corporation in its $6.8 billion acquisition of Health Net, and eBay in its separation from PayPal. In 2016, Allen & Co was the lead advisor to Time Warner in its $108 billion acquisition by AT&T, LinkedIn for its merger talks with Microsoft, Walmart in its $3.3 billion purchase of Jet.com, and Verizon in its $4.8 billion acquisition of Yahoo!. In 2017, Allen & Co. was the advisor to Chewy.com in PetSmart’s $3.35 billion purchase of the online retailer.
Previous conference guests have included Bill and Melinda Gates, Warren and Susan Buffett, Tony Blair, Google founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin, Allen alumnus and former Philippine Senator Mar Roxas, Google Chairman Eric Schmidt, Quicken Loans Founder & Chairman Dan Gilbert, Yahoo! co-founder Jerry Yang, financier George Soros, Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg, Media Mogul Rupert Murdoch, eBay CEO Meg Whitman, BET founder Robert Johnson, Time Warner Chairman Richard Parsons, Nike founder and chairman Phil Knight, Dell founder and CEO Michael Dell, NBA player LeBron James, Professor and Entrepreneur Sebastian Thrun, Governor Chris Christie, entertainer Dan Chandler, Katharine Graham of The Washington Post, Diane Sawyer, InterActiveCorp Chairman Barry Diller, Linkedin co-founder Reid Hoffman, entrepreneur Wences Casares, EXOR and FCA Chairman John Elkann, Sandro Salsano from Salsano Group, and Washington Post CEO Donald E. Graham, Ivanka Trump and Jared Kushner, and Oprah Winfrey.
https://i.imgur.com/VZ0OtFa.png George Tenet, with the reigns of Allen & Co in his hands, is able to single-handedly steer the entire Mockingbird apparatus from cable television to video games to Internet shills from a singular location determining the spectrum of allowable debate. Not only are they able to target people’s conscious psychology, they can target people’s endocrine systems with food and pornography; where people are unaware, on a conscious level, of how their moods and behavior are being manipulated. https://i.imgur.com/mA3MzTB.png
"The problem with George Tenet is that he doesn't seem to care to get his facts straight. He is not meticulous. He is willing to make up stories that suit his purposes and to suppress information that does not." "Sadly but fittingly, 'At the Center of the Storm' is likely to remind us that sometimes what lies at the center of a storm is a deafening silence."
https://i.imgur.com/YHMJnnP.png Tenet joined President-elect Bill Clinton's national security transition team in November 1992. Clinton appointed Tenet Senior Director for Intelligence Programs at the National Security Council, where he served from 1993 to 1995. Tenet was appointed Deputy Director of Central Intelligence in July 1995. Tenet held the position as the DCI from July 1997 to July 2004. Citing "personal reasons," Tenet submitted his resignation to President Bush on June 3, 2004. Tenet said his resignation "was a personal decision and had only one basis—in fact, the well-being of my wonderful family—nothing more and nothing less. In February 2008, he became a managing director at investment bank Allen & Company. https://i.imgur.com/JnGHqOS.png We have the documentation that demonstrates what these people could possibly be doing with all of these tools of manipulation at their fingertips. The term for it is “covert political action” for which all media put before your eyes is used to serve as a veneer… a reality TV show facade of a darker modus operandum. https://i.imgur.com/vZC4D29.png https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/vol36no3/html/v36i3a05p_0001.htm
It is now clear that we are facing an implacable enemy whose avowed objective is world domination by whatever means and at whatever costs. There are no rules in such a game. Hitherto acceptable norms of human conduct do not apply. If the US is to survive, longstanding American concepts of "fair play" must be reconsidered. We must develop effective espionage and counterespionage services and must learn to subvert, sabotage and destroy our enemies by more clever, more sophisticated means than those used against us. It may become necessary that the American people be made acquainted with, understand and support this fundamentally repugnant philosophy.
Intelligence historian Jeffrey T. Richelson says the S.A. has covered a variety of missions. The group, which recently was reorganized, has had about 200 officers, divided among several groups: the Special Operations Group; the Foreign Training Group, which trains foreign police and intelligence officers; the Propaganda and Political Action Group, which handles disinformation; the Computer Operations Group, which handles information warfare; and the Proprietary Management Staff, which manages whatever companies the CIA sets up as covers for the S.A.
…Those operations we inaugurated in the years 1955-7 are still secret, but, for present purposes, I can say all that’s worth saying about them in a few sentences – after, that is, I offer these few words of wisdom. The ‘perfect’ political action operation is, by definition, uneventful. Nothing ‘happens’ in it. It is a continuing arrangement, neither a process nor a series of actions proceeding at a starting point and ending with a conclusion.
CIA FBI NSA Personnel Active in Scientology: https://i.imgur.com/acu2Eti.png When you consider the number of forces that can be contained within a single “political action group” in the form on a “boutique investment firm,” where all sides of political arguments are predetermined by a selected group of actors who have been planted, compromised or leveraged in some way in order to control the way they spin their message. https://i.imgur.com/tU4MD4S.png The evidence of this coordinated effort is overwhelming and the “consensus” that you see on TV, in sports, in Hollywood, in the news and on the Internet is fabricated.
Under the guise of a fake account a posting is made which looks legitimate and is towards the truth is made - but the critical point is that it has a VERY WEAK PREMISE without substantive proof to back the posting. Once this is done then under alternative fake accounts a very strong position in your favour is slowly introduced over the life of the posting. It is IMPERATIVE that both sides are initially presented, so the uninformed reader cannot determine which side is the truth. As postings and replies are made the stronger 'evidence' or disinformation in your favour is slowly 'seeded in.' Thus the uninformed reader will most likely develop the same position as you, and if their position is against you their opposition to your posting will be most likely dropped. However in some cases where the forum members are highly educated and can counter your disinformation with real facts and linked postings, you can then 'abort' the consensus cracking by initiating a 'forum slide.'
When you find yourself feeling like common sense and common courtesy aren’t as common as they ought to be, it is because there is a massive psychological operation controlled from the top down to ensure that as many people as possible are caught in a “tension based” mental loop that is inflicted on them by people acting with purpose to achieve goals that are not in the interest of the general population, but a method of operating in secret and corrupt manner without consequences. Notice that Jeffrey Katzenberg, of Disney, who is intertwined with Allen & Co funds the Young Turks. He is the perfect example of the relationship between media and politics.
Katzenberg has also been involved in politics. With his active support of Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama, he was called "one of Hollywood's premier political kingmakers and one of the Democratic Party's top national fundraisers."
Last week, former DreamWorks Animation CEO Jeffrey Katzenberg’s new mobile entertainment company WndrCo was part of a $20 million funding round in TYT Network, which oversees 30 news and commentary shows covering politics, pop culture, sports and more. This includes the flagship “The Young Turks” program that streams live on YouTube every day. Other investors in the round included venture capital firms Greycroft Partners, E.ventures and 3L Capital, which led the round. This brings total funding for Young Turks to $24 million.
Hollywood activism long has been depicted as a club controlled by a handful of powerful white men: Katzenberg, Spielberg, Lear, David Geffen, Haim Saban and Bob Iger are the names most often mentioned. But a new generation of power brokers is ascendant, including J.J. Abrams and his wife, Katie McGrath, cited for their personal donations and bundling skills; Shonda Rhimes, who held a get-out-the-vote rally at USC's Galen Center on Sept. 28 that drew 10,000 people; CAA's Darnell Strom, who has hosted events for Nevada congresswoman Jacky Rosen and Arizona congresswoman Kyrsten Sinema; and former Spotify executive Troy Carter, who held three fundraisers for Maryland gubernatorial candidate Ben Jealous (Carter also was a fundraiser for President Obama).
Viacom, after splitting off from Les Moonves Les Moonves ' CBS , still holds Paramount Pictures, and that movie studio in December agreed to acquire DreamWorks SKG, the creative shop founded by the Hollywood triumvirate of Steven Spielberg, David Geffen and Jeffrey Katzenberg (a former exec at The Walt Disney Co.). DreamWorks Animation had been spun off into a separate company. Now it's time for Freston to make back some money--and who better to do a little business with than George Soros? The billionaire financier leads a consortium of Soros Strategic Partners LP and Dune Entertainment II LLC, which together are buying the DreamWorks library--a collection of 59 flicks, including Saving Private Ryan, Gladiator, and American Beauty.
February — The first ever cryptocurrency exchange, Bitcoin Market, is established. The first trade takes place a month later. April — The first public bitcoin trade takes place: 1000BTC traded for $30 at an exchange rate of 0.03USD/1BTC May — The first real-world bitcoin transaction is undertaken by Laszlo Hanyecz, who paid 10000BTC for two Papa John’s pizzas (Approximately $25 USD) June — Bitcoin developer Gavin Andreson creates a faucet offering 5 free BTC to the public July — First notable usage of the word “blockchain” appears on BitcoinTalk forum. Prior to this, it was referred to as ‘Proof-of-Work chain’ July — Bitcoin exchange named Magic The Gathering Online eXchange—also known as Mt. Gox—established August —Bitcoin protocol bug leads to emergency hard fork December — Satoshi Nakamoto ceases communication with the world
January — One-quarter of the eventual total of 21M bitcoins have been generated February — Bitcoin reaches parity for the first time with USD April — Bitcoin reaches parity with EUR and GBP June — WikiLeaks begins accepting Bitcoin donations June — Mt. Gox hacked, resulting in suspension of trading and a precipitous price drop for Bitcoin August — First Bitcoin Improvement Proposal: BIP Purpose and Guidelines October — Litecoin released December — Bitcoin featured as a major plot element in an episode of ‘The Good Wife’ as 9.45 million viewers watch.
May — Bitcoin Magazine, founded by Mihai Alisie and Vitalik Buterin, publishes first issue July — Government of Estonia begins incorporating blockchain into digital ID efforts September — Bitcoin Foundation created October — BitPay reports having over 1,000 merchants accepting bitcoin under its payment processing service November — First Bitcoin halving to 25 BTC per block
February — Reddit begins accepting bitcoins for Gold memberships March — Cyprus government bailout levies bank accounts with over $100k. Flight to Bitcoin results in major price spike. May —Total Bitcoin value surpasses 1 billion USD with 11M Bitcoin in circulation May — The first cryptocurrency market rally and crash takes place. Prices rise from $13 to $220, and then drop to $70 June — First major cryptocurrency theft. 25,000 BTC is stolen from Bitcoin forum founder July — Mastercoin becomes the first project to conduct an ICO August — U.S. Federal Court issues opinion that Bitcoin is a currency or form of money October — The FBI shuts down dark web marketplace Silk Road, confiscating approximately 26,000 bitcoins November — Vitalik Buterin releases the Ethereum White Paper: “A Next-Generation Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platform” December — The first commit to the Ethereum codebase takes place
January — Vitalik Buterin announces Ethereum at the North American Bitcoin Conference in Miami February — HMRC in the UK classifies Bitcoin as private money March — Newsweek claims Dorian Nakamoto is Bitcoin creator. He is not April — Gavin Wood releases the Ethereum Yellow Paper: “Ethereum: A Secure Decentralised Generalised Transaction Ledger” June — Ethereum Foundation established in Zug, Switzerland June — US Marshals Service auctions off 30,000 Bitcoin confiscated from Silk Road. All are purchased by venture capitalist Tim Draper July — Ethereum token launch raises 31,591 BTC ($18,439,086) over 42 days September — TeraExchange launches first U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission approved Bitcoin over-the-counter swap October — ConsenSys is founded by Joe Lubin December — By year’s end, Paypal, Zynga, u/, Expedia, Newegg, Dell, Dish Network, and Microsoft are all accepting Bitcoin for payments
January — Coinbase opens up the first U.S-based cryptocurrency exchange February — Stripe initiates bitcoin payment integration for merchants April — NASDAQ initiates blockchain trial June — NYDFS releases final version of its BitLicense virtual currency regulations July — Ethereum’s first live mainnet release—Frontier—launched. August — Augur, the first token launch on the Ethereum network takes place September — R3 consortium formed with nine financial institutions, increases to over 40 members within six months October — Gemini exchange launches, founded by Tyler and Cameron Winklevoss November — Announcement of first zero knowledge proof, ZK-Snarks December — Linux Foundation establishes Hyperledger project
January — Zcash announced February — HyperLedger project announced by Linux Foundation with thirty founding members March — Second Ethereum mainnet release, Homestead, is rolled out. April — The DAO (decentralized autonomous organization) launches a 28-day crowdsale. After one month, it raises an Ether value of more than US$150M May — Chinese Financial Blockchain Shenzhen Consortium launches with 31 members June — The DAO is attacked with 3.6M of the 11.5M Ether in The DAO redirected to the attacker’s Ethereum account July — The DAO attack results in a hard fork of the Ethereum Blockchain to recover funds. A minority group rejecting the hard fork continues to use the original blockchain renamed Ethereum Classic July — Second Bitcoin halving to 12.5BTC per block mined November — CME Launches Bitcoin Price Index
January — Bitcoin price breaks US$1,000 for the first time in three years February — Enterprise Ethereum Alliance formed with 30 founding members, over 150 members six months later March — Multiple applications for Bitcoin ETFs rejected by the SEC April — Bitcoin is officially recognized as currency by Japan June — EOS begins its year-long ICO, eventually raising $4 billion July — Parity hack exposes weaknesses in multisig wallets August — Bitcoin Cash forks from the Bitcoin Network October — Ethereum releases Byzantium soft fork network upgrade, part one of Metropolis September — China bans ICOs October — Bitcoin price surpasses $5,000 USD for the first time November — Bitcoin price surpasses $10,000 USD for the first time December — Ethereum Dapp Cryptokitties goes viral, pushing the Ethereum network to its limits
January — Ethereum price peaks near $1400 USD March — Google bans all ads pertaining to cryptocurrency March — Twitter bans all ads pertaining to cryptocurrency April — 2018 outpaces 2017 with $6.3 billion raised in token launches in the first four months of the year April — EU government commits $300 million to developing blockchain projects June — The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission states that Ether is not a security. July — Over 100,000 ERC20 tokens created August — New York Stock Exchange owner announces Bakkt, a federally regulated digital asset exchange October — Bitcoin’s 10th birthday November — VC investment in blockchain tech surpasses $1 billion December — 90% of banks in the US and Europe report exploration of blockchain tech
January — Coinstar machines begin selling cryptocurrency at grocery stores across the US February — Ethereum’s Constantinople hard fork is released, part two of Metropolis April — Bitcoin surpasses 400 million total transactions June — Facebook announces Libra July — United States senate holds hearings titled ‘Examining Regulatory Frameworks for Digital Currencies and Blockchain” August — Ethereum developer dominance reaches 4x that of any other blockchain October — Over 80 million distinct Ethereum addresses have been created September — Santander bank settles both sides of a $20 million bond on Ethereum November — Over 3000 Dapps created. Of them, 2700 are built on Ethereum
Bitcoin (BTC) Has Seen One Major Rally During Each Block Reward Era
https://preview.redd.it/lf7p0zqyn5d21.png?width=600&format=png&auto=webp&s=09a9c48586f96f1dda44b4a1af2d69b8bf57aa4f https://cryptoiq.co/bitcoin-btc-has-seen-one-major-rally-during-each-block-reward-era/ So far, there have been 3 block reward eras for Bitcoin (BTC). The first era started with the genesis block in early January 2009, and there were 50 Bitcoin per block. The second era began at block 210,000 in late November 2012, and the block reward halved to 25 Bitcoin. The third era, which we are in as of this writing, began at block 420,000 in early July 2016. The block reward is now 12.5 Bitcoin. When we overlay block reward halving dates on a logarithmic chart of Bitcoin’s price (below), it becomes apparent that there has been one major rally during each block reward era, at least so far. Further, roughly a year before the block halving that begins the era, the major rally of that era begins. Source: @MoonOverlord on Twitter As can be seen in the above chart the Bitcoin rally of late 2013 which brought Bitcoin over $1,000 for the first time occurred towards the middle of the 2nd era, and the rally to $20,000 in late 2017 occurred near the middle of the third era. The fourth block reward era, when block rewards will be slashed to 6.25 Bitcoin, will start at block 630,000, projected to occur in May 2020. If the trend in the above chart continues, Bitcoin would bottom in late Spring or early Summer 2019 and then rally for one to two years to new all-time highs. There may be some causation to this correlation. We expect that block halvings would help increase Bitcoin’s price since the rate of creation from mining is slashed. That means the Bitcoin inflation rate is halved. In the presence of increasing demand, the halving of the inflow of new Bitcoin would increase its price. That said, there are many other factors that influence Bitcoin’s market cycles, making it perhaps overly simplistic to say that Bitcoin’s past two market cycles have been entirely due to the block halving. This correlation could be a coincidence. It’s worth noting, however, that the rally of late 2013 ended as Mt. Gox collapsed, and the rally of 2017 ended as CME Bitcoin futures were launched and introduced massive short selling pressure. Nonetheless, traders and investors pricing in the next block halving may apply upward pressure on Bitcoin’s price when May 2020 approaches. It will be interesting to see if history repeats itself and Bitcoin sees new all-time highs during the fourth block reward era.
It's not just Garena, from 2009 to 2013, Riot games was also using your computer to mine bitcoins (proof inside)
look at the facts league of legends alpha started in the first quarter of 2009... AT THE SAME TIME BITCOIN LAUNCHED there were 3 items, PHILOSOPHER'S STONE, AVARICE BLADE and KAGE'S LUCKY PICK with a passive gold gain effect... now u might ask, how can Riot give you this extra gold?? but it gets better... on september of 2009, Riot went all in by adding HEART OF GOLD to the game, which also had a gold generation effect (proof). now with heart of gold, philosophers stone, avarice blade and kage's lucky pick, every role has a gold generation item so if u are still wondering how riot made gold from thin air, the answer is very simple... gold generation items were actually MINING ITEMS, they were using your computer to mine bitcoin and paying you a small portion of the profits as the gold passive in the mining items RIOT GAMES were doing this from 2009 to 2013 when they finally removed the items on patch 3.14 i have gathered conclusive evidence that matches the date of patch 3.14 on november 20th 2013 by analyzing the bitcoin market data as you can see this snapshot of the final quarter of 2013 (check the data yourself if you dont believe me) they removed the mining items causing a major supply shortage which drove the price up to an all time high and then sold all their ill gained bitcoins, u can verify that the dates match up perfectly yourself here
2019 in Review: Community, Crime, Courtcases, Craig & Consolidation
https://preview.redd.it/r7dmpveldia41.png?width=680&format=png&auto=webp&s=f7dc87d5b58c4391d3e04359c4dc111d771246a1 2019 has been a tumultuous but amazing year for the development and advancement of blockchain technology. Following the rally to the all-time-highs at the end of 2017 and the intense infrastructure development and ongoing Bear Market of 2018 it was clear things were changing quickly. We are about to enter a new decase and the team at Aelf wanted to look back at 2019 and reflect on some of the events that occurred over the last year to see where the industry might be headed in 2020. https://preview.redd.it/tccwloemdia41.png?width=384&format=png&auto=webp&s=3c9feac47c8e8accc602dee7e738df86facc3e2e Although the year has been considered a continuation of the 2018 bear market, it didn’t stop development, progression and a myriad of crazy events from occurring. This included the challenges associated with global regulations, the upcoming Bitcoin halving event in May 2020, announcement of the Facebook Libra and Telegram Open Network’s (TON) launch delay. This year also saw a myriad of debacles from self-proclaimed Bitcoin creator Craig Wright, the Justin Sun and Warren Buffet lunch situation, the recent claim of Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey’s goal to modify Twitter into a decentralized version of the platform, and President Trump’s Bitcoin statement, among others. Now let’s examine more of what took place during 2019 as we approach the start of the New Year in 2020. The SEC, Telegram, Facebook Libra, Kik and Blockchain’s Global Regulatory Environment Many of the world’s governments have been harsh towards blockchain technology in recent years. Particularly, the US Government and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) have been very reluctant to ease the regulatory framework for blockchain development in the country. This has become more evident in 2019, with the SEC combatting many blockchain projects this year including the $1.7 billion-dollar token offering of the Telegram Open Network and the Facebook Libra project. As well the SEC created controversy in a gruesome battle with Kik over its alleged illegal token offering that Kik has sworn to fight to their last breath. https://preview.redd.it/6yngxxfndia41.png?width=614&format=png&auto=webp&s=dc363d1a2225f461bad20786e8439e7cc3896d7d Many proponents of blockchain technology accuse the SEC of unfair policies to put a stranglehold on the development on blockchain in order to prevent the devaluation of the American monetary system. The reluctance for crypto exchanges to set up shop in the US is also becoming more prevalent because of the supposedly biased and unfavourable approach of the SEC. Nevertheless, there are also several major countries including China that have for the most part embraced the advancement of blockchain technology in 2019. China has also nearly finalized the development of the digital Chinese Yuan and announced that that country is going all in on blockchain development despite its sometimes anti-Bitcoin approach. The Bitcoin Halving Event and its Ongoing Effect on Market Conditions With the end of 2019 nearly upon us and the upcoming Bitcoin halving event set to take place during May of 2020 the market could be overdue for a bull market of mass proportions. Remember, the last bull market that took place was 2 years ago during December 2017 and was followed by an incredible dump from the all-time-high price of 20 thousand US Dollars to just 3300 USD in December 2018. For the most part, 2018 was a blood-bath for crypto markets and 2019 has not been all that much better. The price did briefly rally up to 14 thousand US Dollars during mid 2019 but has since been reduce by half with the Bitcoin price presently at just over 7000 US Dollars. Bitcoin was designed by its original creators with code written to mitigate the negative effects of inflation. In order to curb inflation, once every 4 years (or 210,000 blocks) the mining rewards that the network automatically generates are reduced in half. https://preview.redd.it/xuthhfiodia41.png?width=819&format=png&auto=webp&s=2cc8cbc7452d4aadb5076530915acfd5e755735a 3 Additional Stories to Watch in 2020 In June, the CEO of Tron, Justin Sun purchased tickets through eBay for a charity auction to have lunch with Warren Buffet. Sun paid a record $4.56 million US Dollars in the process becoming the highest bid in the 20-year history of the event. The purpose of the lunch from Sun’s standpoint is to change Mr. Buffet’s viewpoint towards crypto and blockchain tech by inviting several blockchain industry leaders to help sway the famous investor’s perspective. Sun subsequently missed the lunch he scheduled in September because of a sudden bout with kidney stones. At this time, the community will have to wait and see when Sun and Buffet will meet in 2020. Stay tuned. Back in December of 2015, Craig Wright claimed publicly to be the creator of Bitcoin, Satoshi Nakamoto. Most believe Wright was lying to gain more fame and recognition in the industry. On November 18th, 2018 Bitcoin SV hard forked from the Bitcoin Cash Network to create it own chain. As noted above, the disgruntled CEO of Bitcoin SV, has for years maintained he led the initial development of Bitcoin. During February 2018, Wright was the subject of a 5.118-Billion-dollar lawsuit by Dave Kleiman claiming that Wright defrauded Kleiman of Bitcoin while working on the initial development of the Bitcoin Network between 2009 and 2013. In August 2019, Wright was ordered by a court of law to pay half the 5.11 Billion in Bitcoin back to Kleiman. Throughout 2019, Wright launched lawsuits against Ethereum founder Vitalik Buterin, Bitcoin Cash’s Roger Ver and others for calling him a fraud. It seems likely Wright will continue his ongoing Satoshi rhetoric in 2020. https://preview.redd.it/l977df8qdia41.png?width=547&format=png&auto=webp&s=f52d70a3c852b920ae665c8b5770a74cd8dadabe The CEO of Twitter, Jack Dorsey recently stated that he has hired 5 full-time employees to modify the Twitter platform and make it increasingly decentralized. This may seem like a small step initially, but this project could be expanded easily by someone of Dorsey’s reputation and wealth in the technology industry. Dorsey himself has been a long-term proponent of blockchain technology and an investor in Bitcoin. Binance CEO, Changpeng Zhao, recently offered to help Dorsey make this dream come to fruition. Additionally, Morgan Creek Capital founder Anthony Pompliano supported Dorsey’s statement noting that, “Jack Dorsey may understand the future better than any entrepreneur on the planet right now.” Conclusion This year we saw Kik, Telegram and Facebook Libra face fierce backlash from the most powerful regulatory body in the world, the SEC. We saw the Chinese government announce that they are all in on blockchain development and declare the upcoming launch of their own centralized digital Chinese Yuan. Justin Sun postponed his 4.56-million-dollar lunch with billionaire investor Warren Buffet because of health issues, while Jack Dorsey the CEO of Twitter proclaimed a more decentralized and open version of Twitter to prevent some of the abuse on the platform. In 2019, the 4-year long Craig Wright and Satoshi Nakamoto saga continued, and we finally are moving closer to the much-anticipated Bitcoin halving event of May 2020 that could change the trajectory of the Bitcoin price for much of 2020 and 2021. It is clear 2019 has been an incredible year for the blockchain industry. With no shortage of uncertainty and scepticism in the short-term, it is likely that 2019 will pale in comparison to the developments of 2020. As we approach 2020, the industry will continue to expand towards mass adoption and the mainstream evolution of blockchain technology. Nevertheless, with the global regulatory blockchain environment evolving in many areas across the world, the uncertainty in the United States remains stronger than ever. There is no telling what will happen in this regard and what will happen with Bitcoin and this amazing revolution in 2020 and beyond. Merry Christmas and Happy Holidays from the Aelf Blockchain team and a Happy 2020 to all our community members!! Thank You
What can the earlier days of Bitcoin teach us about holding Ethereum?
Recently, I was thinking back to my first exposure to crypto, after talking with a couple of my coworkers who shared their own, more recent experience with me. It was late 2013 when I first bought BTC, but I had heard about Bitcoin a couple of years earlier. I thought the idea of internet money that nobody controlled sounded like a scam, so I stayed clear. I couldn't really understand the value proposition and didn't take the time to understand how it works (hindsight is 20/20). That started to change in early 2013. I learned much more about Bitcoin, which at the time was the only blockchain of any consequence, and began to understand the trustless nature of this revolutionary technology and how it would change the world. But what drew me in was the price. For those of you who weren't around then, it's worth taking a minute to open up that chart on Coinbase and see what that bump was in the grand scheme of things. See what now looks like a relatively little blip there in late 2013? That was when Bitcoin went roughly 10x in a month- from a $100 valuation to a $1000 valuation. I signed up for a Coinbase account shortly before Thanksgiving. Over that Thanksgiving, I spent the whole holiday / weekend talking to my family about how revolutionary this technology was- and wow, were they confused and unable to fathom it. To me, it seemed so obvious. Price increases have a way of "revealing" unassailable logic in situations like these. It took a while for Coinbase to approve my account, but I could hardly wait for that. I was on eBay, seeing if I could buy Casascius Coins. They were appealing to me at the time, because they merged an asset that was completely virtual with something that was tangible. My brain had still not fully accepted paying so much money for something that "didnt' exist" in real life. But the speculation was soaring so high on those coins (double the BTC value or more) that I decided to pass. Soon thereafter, I finally got access to Coinbase and bought my first Bitcoin for around $900. And then the price dropped, and it kept dropping. But I kept on buying, knowing that this is how asset markets worked. The price was going down, but for something this revolutionary, it would have to eventually go back up...at least that's what I was hoping. I bought all the way down to prices in the low $400s. And then in June 2014, I abruptly sold them all, at a sizable net loss. Why did I do that? What was going through my mind to make such a rash decision? Well, open that chart back up. The price had cratered down into the $230s and seemed to be stuck at these new lows- it was a winter that started earlier in that year and never ended. And the Mt Gox debacle was completely soul crushing and I really felt that my hopes for the success of a decentralized currency were completely dashed. And back then, there were no other alt coins to FOMO into. It was Bitcoin or (mostly) nothing. Besides, I had a major home purchase underway and decided that my money was better going into that rather than holding Bitcoin. In hindsight, I sold at what turned out to be the close to the bottom of Bitcoin. And then just look at that chart. A slow and steady increase over years, with $1000 only being reached again in March of this year. And as we enter Thanksgiving 4 years later, some of you are going to have these same conversations with your own families about Ethereum. I can tell you what some of them are going to say: "Internet money? I wouldn't invest in something like that. Who controls it? Isn't this just for criminals?" "Smart contracts? Even if they do work, what's the point of having them when you have regular contracts? And why does XYZ service even need to be decentralized?" "This whole thing sounds like a bubble. I hope you don't have much money in this..." So what does all of this teach us about holding Ethereum?
For many of your friends and family next week, it will be the first time they've heard of concepts like smart contracts or even cryptocurrency in any depth, but if Bitcoin is our teacher, it won't be the last. Take the time to explain it, but don't be pushy about it. Plant the seed, walk away, and send articles to them over the course of the next year.
Bitcoin's $1000 moment reminds me of ETH's $420 moment. Many new buyers FOMO'ed in and are still waiting for their returns, with many likely abandoning the path along the way. Most of the actual buyers of Bitcoin in 2013 then were "nerds" who were fascinated by the technology because they were among the few who took the time to understand it and felt comfortable putting large amounts of money into something on the internet. I would suggest that most recent ETH buyers are still in this "nerd" territory, without real mainstream understanding of what it is.
We are in what seems like a "long winter," with ETH stagnant at around $300. But it is unlikely our next big run will take 4 years to develop. I'm thinking a period of 3 to 12 months. The space isn't what it used to be, with massive institutional money coming and a very vibrant and mainstream-accepted development community. Those among you who were smart bought every token they could during the July depression. If that happens again, you know what to do.
Even if we had another Mt Gox style event (I won't name any exchanges or pegged tokens), it would probably not have the same impact as Mt Gox had. The system is much more diverse and resilient against such events now. There would be a drop, but it would be (hopefully) short lived.
If you just hold long enough, the price is very likely to go up. Possibly substantially up. Maybe even life changing amounts up. You understand the technology and the potential. Don't doubt yourself on your original thesis, like I did with Bitcoin a few years ago. The future picture for ETH has only gotten better in recent months.
So learn from Bitcoin, and don't screw this up for yourselves by taking rash actions- driven by impatience or outsized greed. I am not always one for hyperbole, but I am not exaggerating when I say that you may honestly regret it for the rest of your life.
The Great Bitcoin Bull Market Of 2017 by Trace Mayer
By: Trace Mayer, host of The Bitcoin Knowledge Podcast. Originally posted here with images and Youtube videos. I just got back from a two week vacation without Internet as I was scouring some archeological ruins. I hardly thought about Bitcoin at all because there were so many other interesting things and it would be there when I got back. Jimmy Song suggested I do an article on the current state of Bitcoin. A great suggestion but he is really smart (he worked on Armory after all!) so I better be thorough and accurate! Therefore, this article will be pretty lengthy and meticulous. BACKGROUND As I completely expected, the 2X movement from the New York Agreement that was supposed to happen during the middle of my vacation flopped on its face because Jeff Garzik was driving the clown car with passengers willfully inside like Coinbase, Blockchain.info, Bitgo and Xapo and there were here massive bugS and in the code and miners like Bitmain did not want to allocate $150-350m to get it over the difficulty adjustments. I am very disappointed in their lack of integrity with putting their money where their mouths are; myself and many others wanted to sell a lot of B2X for BTC! On 7 December 2015, with Bitcoin trading at US$388.40, I wrote The Rise of the Fourth Great Bitcoin Bubble. On 4 December 2016, with Bitcoin trading at US$762.97, I did this interview:
As of 26 November 2017, Bitcoin is trading around US$9,250.00. That is an increase of about 2,400% since I wrote the article prognosticating this fourth great Bitcoin bull market. I sure like being right, like usual (19 Dec 2011, 1 Jul 2013), especially when there are financial and economic consequences. With such massive gains in such a short period of time the speculative question becomes: Buy, Hold or Sell? FUNDAMENTALS Bitcoin is the decentralized censorship-resistant Internet Protocol for transferring value over a communications channel. The Bitcoin network can use traditional Internet infrastructure. However, it is even more resilient because it has custom infrastructure including, thanks to Bitcoin Core developer Matt Corrallo, the FIBRE network and, thanks to Blockstream, satellites which reduce the cost of running a full-node anywhere in the world to essentially nothing in terms of money or privacy. Transactions can be cheaply broadcast via SMS messages. SECURITY The Bitcoin network has a difficulty of 1,347,001,430,559 which suggests about 9,642,211 TH/s of custom ASIC hardware deployed. At a retail price of approximately US$105/THs that implies about $650m of custom ASIC hardware deployed (35% discount applied). This custom hardware consumes approximately 30 TWh per year. That could power about 2.8m US households or the entire country of Morocco which has a population of 33.85m. This Bitcoin mining generates approximately 12.5 bitcoins every 10 minutes or approximately 1,800 per day worth approximately US$16,650,000. Bitcoin currently has a market capitalization greater than $150B which puts it solidly in the top-30 of M1 money stock countries and a 200 day moving average of about $65B which is increasing about $500m per day. Average daily volumes for Bitcoin is around US$5B. That means multi-million dollar positions can be moved into and out of very easily with minimal slippage. When my friend Andreas Antonopolous was unable to give his talk at a CRYPSA event I was invited to fill in and delivered this presentation, impromptu, on the Seven Network Effects of Bitcoin. These seven network effects of Bitcoin are (1) Speculation, (2) Merchants, (3) Consumers, (4) Security [miners], (5) Developers, (6) Financialization and (7) Settlement Currency are all taking root at the same time and in an incredibly intertwined way. With only the first network effect starting to take significant root; Bitcoin is no longer a little experiment of magic Internet money anymore. Bitcoin is monster growing at a tremendous rate!!
SPECULATION For the Bitcoin price to remain at $9,250 it requires approximately US$16,650,000 per day of capital inflow from new hodlers. Bitcoin is both a Giffen good and a Veblen good. A Giffen good is a product that people consume more of as the price rises and vice versa — seemingly in violation of basic laws of demand in microeconomics such as with substitute goods and the income effect. Veblen goods are types of luxury goods for which the quantity demanded increases as the price increases in an apparent contradiction of the law of demand. There are approximately 16.5m bitcoins of which ~4m are lost, ~4-6m are in deep cold storage, ~4m are in cold storage and ~2-4m are salable. (http://www.runtogold.com/images/lost-bitcoins-1.jpg) (http://www.runtogold.com/images/lost-bitcoins-2.jpg) And forks like BCash (BCH) should not be scary but instead be looked upon as an opportunity to take more territory on the Bitcoin blockchain by trading the forks for real bitcoins which dries up more salable supply by moving it, likely, into deep cold storage. According to Wikipedia, there are approximately 15.4m millionaires in the United States and about 12m HNWIs ($30m+ net worth) in the world. In other words, if every HNWI in the world wanted to own an entire bitcoin as a 'risk-free asset' that cannot be confiscated, seized or have the balance other wise altered then they could not. For wise portfolio management, these HNWIs should have at least about 2-5% in gold and 0.5-1% in bitcoin. Why? Perhaps some of the 60+ Saudis with 1,700 frozen bank accounts and about $800B of assets being targetted might be able to explain it to you. In other words, everyone loves to chase the rabbit and once they catch it then know that it will not get away. RETAIL There are approximately 150+ significant Bitcoin exchanges worldwide. Kraken, according to the CEO, was adding about 6,000 new funded accounts per day in July 2017. Supposedly, Coinbase is currently adding about 75,000 new accounts per day. Based on some trade secret analytics I have access to; I would estimate Coinbase is adding approximately 17,500 new accounts per day that purchase at least US$100 of Bitcoin. If we assume Coinbase accounts for 8% of new global Bitcoin users who purchase at least $100 of bitcoins (just pulled out of thin error and likely very conservative as the actual number is perhaps around 2%) then that is approximately $21,875,000 of new capital coming into Bitcoin every single day just from retail demand from 218,750 total new accounts. What I have found is that most new users start off buying US$100-500 and then after 3-4 months months they ramp up their capital allocation to $5,000+ if they have the funds available. After all, it takes some time and practical experience to learn how to safely secure one's private keys. To do so, I highly recommendBitcoin Core (network consensus and full validation of the blockchain), Armory (private key management), Glacier Protocol (operational procedures) and a Puri.sm laptop (secure non-specialized hardware). WALL STREET There has been no solution for large financial fiduciaries to invest in Bitcoin. This changed November 2017. LedgerX, whose CEO I interviewed 23 March 2013, began trading as a CFTC regulated Swap Execution Facility and Derivatives Clearing Organization. The CME Group announced they will begin trading in Q4 2017 Bitcoin futures. The CBOE announced they will begin trading Bitcoin futures soon. By analogy, these institutional products are like connecting a major metropolis's water system (US$90.4T and US$2 quadrillion) via a nanoscopic shunt to a tiny blueberry ($150B) that is infinitely expandable. This price discovery could be the most wild thing anyone has ever experienced in financial markets. THE GREAT CREDIT CONTRACTION The same week Bitcoin was released I published my book The Great Credit Contraction and asserted it had now begun and capital would burrow down the liquidity pyramid into safer and more liquid assets. (http://www.runtogold.com/images/Great-Credit-Contraction-Liquidity-Pyramid.jpg) Thus, the critical question becomes: Is Bitcoin a possible solution to the Great Credit Contraction by becoming the safest and most liquid asset? BITCOIN'S RISK PROFILE At all times and in all circumstances gold remains money but, of course, there is always exchange rate risk due to price ratios constantly fluctuating. If the metal is held with a third-party in allocated-allocated storage (safest possible) then there is performance risk (Morgan Stanley gold storage lawsuit). But, if properly held then, there should be no counter-party risk which requires the financial ability of a third-party to perform like with a bank account deposit. And, since gold exists at a single point in space and time therefore it is subject to confiscation or seizure risk. Bitcoin is a completely new asset type. As such, the storage container is nearly empty with only $150B. And every Bitcoin transaction effectively melts down every BTC and recasts it; thus ensuring with 100% accuracy the quantity and quality of the bitcoins. If the transaction is not on the blockchain then it did not happen. This is the strictest regulation possible; by math and cryptography! This new immutable asset, if properly secured, is subject only to exchange rate risk. There does exist the possibility that a software bug may exist that could shut down the network, like what has happened with Ethereum, but the probability is almost nil and getting lower everyday it does not happen. Thus, Bitcoin arguably has a lower risk profile than even gold and is the only blockchain to achieve security, scalability and liquidity. To remain decentralized, censorship-resistant and immutable requires scalability so as many users as possible can run full-nodes. (http://www.runtogold.com/images/ethereum-bitcoin-scability-nov-2017.png) TRANSACTIONS Some people, probably mostly those shilling alt-coins, think Bitcoin has a scalability problem that is so serious it requires a crude hard fork to solve. On the other side of the debate, the Internet protocol and blockchain geniuses assert the scalability issues can, like other Internet Protocols have done, be solved in different layers which are now possible because of Segregated Witness which was activated in August 2017. Whose code do you want to run: the JV benchwarmers or the championship Chicago Bulls? As transaction fees rise, certain use cases of the Bitcoin blockchain are priced out of the market. And as the fees fall then they are economical again. Additionally, as transaction fees rise, certain UTXOs are no longer economically usable thus destroying part of the money supply until fees decline and UTXOs become economical to move. There are approximately 275,000-350,000 transactions per day with transaction fees currently about $2m/day and the 200 DMA is around $1.08m/day. (http://www.runtogold.com/images/bitcoin-transaction-fees-nov-2017.png) What I like about transaction fees is that they somewhat reveal the financial health of the network. The security of the Bitcoin network results from the miners creating solutions to proof of work problems in the Bitcoin protocol and being rewarded from the (1) coinbase reward which is a form of inflation and (2) transaction fees which is a form of usage fee. The higher the transaction fees then the greater implied value the Bitcoin network provides because users are willing to pay more for it. I am highly skeptical of blockchains which have very low transaction fees. By Internet bubble analogy, Pets.com may have millions of page views but I am more interested in EBITDA. DEVELOPERS Bitcoin and blockchain programming is not an easy skill to acquire and master. Most developers who have the skill are also financially independent now and can work on whatever they want. The best of the best work through the Bitcoin Core process. After all, if you are a world class mountain climber then you do not hang out in the MacDonalds play pen but instead climb Mount Everest because that is where the challenge is. However, there are many talented developers who work in other areas besides the protocol. Wallet maintainers, exchange operators, payment processors, etc. all need competent developers to help build their businesses. Consequently, there is a huge shortage of competent developers. This is probably the largest single scalability constraint for the ecosystem. Nevertheless, the Bitcoin ecosystem is healthier than ever before. (http://www.runtogold.com/images/bitcoin-ecosystem.jpg)(/images/bitcoin-ecosystem-small.jpg) SETTLEMENT CURRENCY There are no significant global reserve settlement currency use cases for Bitcoin yet. Perhaps the closest is Blockstream's Strong Federations via Liquid. PRICE There is a tremendous amount of disagreement in the marketplace about the value proposition of Bitcoin. Price discovery for this asset will be intense and likely take many cycles of which this is the fourth. Since the supply is known the exchange rate of Bitcoins is composed of (1) transactional demand and (2) speculative demand. Interestingly, the price elasticity of demand for the transactional demand component is irrelevant to the price. This makes for very interesting dynamics! (http://www.runtogold.com/images/bitcoin-speculation.jpg) On 4 May 2017, Lightspeed Venture Partners partner Jeremy Liew who was among the early Facebook investors and the first Snapchat investor laid out their case for bitcoin exploding to $500,000 by 2030. On 2 November 2017, Goldman Sachs CEO Lloyd Blankfein (https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-11-02/blankfein-says-don-t-dismiss-bitcoin-while-still-pondering-value)said, "Now we have paper that is just backed by fiat...Maybe in the new world, something gets backed by consensus." On 12 Sep 2017, JP Morgan CEO called Bitcoin a 'fraud' but conceded that "(http://fortune.com/2017/09/12/jamie-dimon-bitcoin-cryptocurrency-fraud-buy/)Bitcoin could reach $100,000". Thus, it is no surprise that the Bitcoin chart looks like a ferret on meth when there are such widely varying opinions on its value proposition. I have been around this space for a long time. In my opinion, those who scoffed at the thought of $1 BTC, $10 BTC (Professor Bitcorn!), $100 BTC, $1,000 BTC are scoffing at $10,000 BTC and will scoff at $100,000 BTC, $1,000,000 BTC and even $10,000,000 BTC. Interestingly, the people who understand it the best seem to think its financial dominance is destiny. Meanwhile, those who understand it the least make emotionally charged, intellectually incoherent bearish arguments. A tremendous example of worldwide cognitive dissonance with regards to sound money, technology and the role or power of the State. Consequently, I like looking at the 200 day moving average to filter out the daily noise and see the long-term trend. (http://www.runtogold.com/images/bitcoin-price-200dma-nov-2017.png) Well, that chart of the long-term trend is pretty obvious and hard to dispute. Bitcoin is in a massive secular bull market. The 200 day moving average is around $4,001 and rising about $30 per day. So, what do some proforma situations look like where Bitcoin may be undervalued, average valued and overvalued? No, these are not prognostications. (http://www.runtogold.com/images/bitcoin-price-pro-forma.png) Maybe Jamie Dimon is not so off his rocker after all with a $100,000 price prediction. We are in a very unique period of human history where the collective globe is rethinking what money is and Bitcoin is in the ring battling for complete domination. Is or will it be fit for purpose? As I have said many times before, if Bitcoin is fit for this purpose then this is the largest wealth transfer in the history of the world. CONCLUSION Well, this has been a brief analysis of where I think Bitcoin is at the end of November 2017. The seven network effects are taking root extremely fast and exponentially reinforcing each other. The technological dominance of Bitcoin is unrivaled. The world is rethinking what money is. Even CEOs of the largest banks and partners of the largest VC funds are honing in on Bitcoin's beacon. While no one has a crystal ball; when I look in mine I see Bitcoin's future being very bright. Currently, almost everyone who has bought Bitcoin and hodled is sitting on unrealized gains as measured in fiat currency. That is, after all, what uncharted territory with daily all-time highs do! But perhaps there is a larger lesson to be learned here. Riches are getting increasingly slippery because no one has a reliable defined tool to measure them with. Times like these require incredible amounts of humility and intelligence guided by macro instincts. Perhaps everyone should start keeping books in three numéraires: USD, gold and Bitcoin. Both gold and Bitcoin have never been worth nothing. But USD is a fiat currency and there are thousands of those in the fiat currency graveyard. How low can the world reserve currency go? After all, what is the risk-free asset? And, whatever it is, in The Great Credit Contraction you want it! What do you think? Disagree with some of my arguments or assertions? Please, eviscerate them on Twitter or in the comments!
The Research was comissioned by Consensys. From Consensys' homepage, we learn that
ConsenSys is a global organism building the infrastructure, applications, and practices that enable a decentralized world.
If we have a look at the About Page, we learn that
Our focus is on the ecosystem, the growth of the Ethereum network (emphasis mine), and global integration of the benefits of blockchain and tokenization.
The study was done by Whiteblock, the "Scalable Blockchain Testing Platform". If we have a look at the prnewswire press release, we learn that:
Blockchain organizations such as Cosmos, Ethereum Community Fund, Amis, Maker DAO, IMToken, PlatON, Status, Loom Network, Coinfund, 1KX, Transference Fund, Web 3 Foundation, Grid+, MixLabs, Ledger Capital, Enterprise Ethereum Alliance, Google, Microsoft, ConsenSys and Bo Shen - Founding Partner of Fenbushi Capital & Cofounder of Bitshares, along with academic institutions such as Duke, USC, and MIT have committed to contributing resources to develop comprehensive reports based on Whiteblock's raw data (emphasis mine).
So at least a few pro-Ethereum entities have provided resources to Whiteblock. Can we expect impartiality from Whiteblock's research? Additionally, if we have a look at the report, it was co-jointedly written by two scientist from Whiteblock and two scientists from Consensys: https://www.screencast.com/t/8niRZaRScVJ So we have the same party requesting an independent study of a concurrent blockchain and participating to the redaction off the final report. Conflict of interests, anyone?
We define an electronic coin as a chain of digital signatures. Each owner transfers the coin to the next by digitally signing a hash of the previous transaction and the public key of the next owner and adding these to the end of the coin. A payee can verify the signatures to verify the chain of ownership.
This becomes apparent from the substantial reliance on architecture where cryptographic validation is not necessarily instantiated, though rather implemented in proximity.
What does not necessarily instantiated mean? This looks like a rather vague statement where the author isn't sure himself about what he writes. I think the main beef Consensys/Whiteblocks has with EOS' architecture is that it doesn't do things the way Ethereum does, and hence is deemed "bad".
About the EOS Max Transaction Rate (TPS):
Whiteblock states that their testnet didn't support more than 250 TPS:
As observed in the section on performance, the transaction throughput in the system does not exceed 250 TPS even in optimal settings with 0 ms of latency and 0% packet loss.
To me it seems like it speaks more of Whiteblock's ability of setting up a test net than anything else, because EOS Mainnet already passed several thousands of transactions previously, with the record being close to 4000 TPS (3996 TPS to be exact):
Edit: added link to Whiteblock paper, spelling, less aggressive tone. Edit 2: Added server info Edit 3: Added virtual machine info, links to server hardware, spelling Edit4: Added introduction, information of performance test inputs Edit 5: Updated sections About EOS and Cryptography and Cryptographic Validation, About the EOS Max Transaction Rate (TPS) Edit 6: Some formatting This post is still work in progress.
In September, Galaxy Digital's Michael Novogratz declared bitcoin had hit its new "bottom" at just over $6,400 per coin; the price of bitcoin remained relatively stable until mid-November when bitcoin saw an additional price decrease of almost 50 percent. By mid-December 2018, bitcoin's price had decreased by more than 80 percent compared to ... Litecoin (LTC) is a decentralized cryptocurrency, a fork of Bitcoin intended by its designers to be more feasibly mined using consumer-grade hardware.. Litecoin is a peer-to-peer crypto currency that was developed on the base of Bitcoin and has an open source code. Unlike Bitcoin, the Litecoin blockchain is able to process a greater number of transactions. Bitcoin passed US $1,000 on 28 November 2013 at Mt.Gox. Prices fell to around $400 in April 2014, before rallying in the middle of the year. They then declined to not much more than $200 in early 2015. Bitcoin price chart since 2009 to 2017 and 2018 . Bitcoin value history (comparison to US $) The April 2013 bubble, commonly called simply the April bubble, was a rally, all-time high and subsequent crash of the bitcoin exchange rate that occurred in April 2013.The bubble resulted in a momentary all-time high of $266 USD per bitcoin on Mt. Gox before a swift correction. Interesting. http://bitcoin.org/ - official site https://multibit.org/ - software to manage bitcoins. win/mac/linux https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Mining_software.Use GPU ...
In this episode, I talk with the man the legend Mr Andreas M. Antonopoulos. We talk about his influences, how the aggregate decisions of humans lead to adver... Bitcoin broke the key support levels at 6000. But how bad is this and what do the charts say? We examine the facts. For more on Bitcoin visit: https://www.le... Part 2 here : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q5ejBFMLbFo Missed the first couple minutes of the discussion... apologies. Led by Sen. Tom Carper http://twitt... After the first Bitcoin Halving in November 2012 the price of Bitcoin crashed more than 80% a couple months later. How likely is such a Bitcoin dump after the Halving in 2020? Phemex $112 Extra ... Michael Moro of Genesis Trading and Genesis Capital joins 'Squawk Box' to discuss the price drop in bitcoin. » Subscribe to CNBC: http://cnb.cx/SubscribeCNBC...